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Effectiveness of Standardized Protocol for Oxygen Therapy on Improving Nurses’ Performance and Patient Health Outcome
Introduction
Oxygen medical aid is essential to sustain human life; it is one of the foremost comprehensive pharmaceuticals for patients with different health conditions. Oxygen medical aid is usually utilized in emergency and essential cases. If oxygen medical aid is not given appropriately, it could be fatal. Hence, patients must receive this medical aid in a safe, and comfortable method (Adipa et al., 2015; Mahmoud et al., 2016; O’driscoll et al., 2016)
Preserve of adequate oxygen delivery to vital organs requires administration of supplemental oxygen, sometimes at high concentrations. Although Oxygen therapy is saving, it may cause harmful effects once administered for prolonged periods at high concentrations. Oxygen ought to be prescribed to come through a target saturation of 94–98% for many acutely sick patients or 88–92% for those in danger of hypercapnic metabolic process failure (Lemma, & Weldelsadik, 2015).
Oxygen medical aid, like any drug, if there is a rise in its dose, can have noxious effects on the human body, exposure to higher concentrations of oxygen; can lead to grave health issues. The most common harmful effect that might result from high oxygen concentration is “oxygen toxicity” (Parke et al., 2013; Sobek, 2017). Oxygen medical aid is an essential part of revivification, acute medical care, necessary oxygen for life-supporting, as well as anesthesia, even postoperative care; any errors in oxygen medical aid will worsen a patient’s condition and will even be grave. The benefits and potential complications of oxygen therapy medical aid area unit well known; but, oxygen medical aid is typically done by health team members while not special attention and ample information or practice (Kane et al., 2013; Goharani et al., 2017).
Health team members are taking part in a curial role, whereas administering oxygen (O2) medical aid, as it should be delivered attending physicians or nurses. The nurses have a critical role in a think they must monitor rigorously and regular patients unit necessary (UN) agency area unit connected with O2 medical aid. Initial investigations like ABG, Hb or Hct and chest X-ray ought to be done frequently based mostly on Medical diagnosis (MD) prescription and assessed rigorously yet as observance of significant signs, level of consciousness, and pulse oximeter area unit necessary. The nurses should be alert relating to the physician’s prescription of O2 medical aid, she/he should check in the MD prescription, which ought to embrace indications, target oxygen saturation, oxygen delivery device, and range of O2 flow or share of galvanized O2 and once O2 is to be applied. The prescription should conjointly be signed and dated by the medical diagnosis. (Lemma, & Weldelsadik, 2015).
Oxygen medical aid, like any other drug, is administered to the patients, so some hindering might face the nurses whereas administering it. These hindering could be associated with nurses themselves as; lack of data, lack of awareness concerning different element devices. Other hindering might be coupled to the hospital as; lack of continuous education associated with the method of chemical element medical aid, lack or unavailability of correct functioning instrumentality, or supplies used throughout element medical aid or absence of protocol of element medical aid. Besides, there are some alternative hindering which could be associated with prescription itself as; unclear physician’s prescription concerning dose, device that should be used in keeping with patients’ condition, the unclear patient’s follow up mechanism (McLeod et al., 2015).
Significance of the Study:
Oxygen medical aid is an essential medical treatment that would be prescribed to the patients in several essential conditions. Failure to administer oxygen medical aid properly places the patients at risk of the many serious health issues as hypoxemia, respiratory pathology, and death (Eastwood et al.; 2012). Thus making sure that chemical element medical aid is administered correctly and safely likewise at the right time is vital for caring patients. Therefore, the current study is conducted to assess nurses’ knowledge, Performance, and hindering, affecting a safe administration of oxygen (O2) therapy as well as Evaluate the effectiveness of standardized protocol for oxygen medical aid to improve nurses’ performance and patient health outcomes.
Aims of the Study:
The current study is aiming to:
1- Assess nurses’ knowledge, Performance, and hindering, affecting a safe administration of oxygen (O2) therapy.
2- Evaluate the effectiveness of standardized protocol for oxygen medical aid to improve nurses’ performance and patient health outcomes.
Research hypotheses:
1. There are positive effects of a standardized protocol for oxygen therapy utilization and improving nurses’ knowledge and performance.
2. Competent nurses’ utilization the standardized care for oxygen therapy will improve the patients’ outcomes.
Subjects and Method:
Design:
A quasi-experimental study will be used.
Setting:
The current study is going to be conducted at three hospitals in Sakaka town totally different medical aid Units (ICUs), CCU, Emergency care department (ED), Medical and Surgical wards, Pediatric care unit (PICUs) ,Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), Pediatric Emergency care department (PED) as well as pediatric inpatientoutpatient departments. The study period can begin in Gregorian calendar month 2109 and completed by the finish of January 2020.
Sample:
Purposeful sample (control and study) group. The nurses operating within the three hospitals and conform to concerned in the study.
Data assortment Tools:
Three tools can be utilized to conduct this study. First tool; Nurses’ information assessment tool (self-administered) includes; nurses’ demographic information as age, gender, qualifications, years of experience, workplace, attended training courses, and type of shift. Second tool: a standardized observational checklist adopted from Browne, 2012. Third tool: Standardized protocol for safe oxygen therapy administration.
Tools Validity and Reliability:
The validity of data assortment tools was done to make sure that the study contents cowl all assessment things associated with the study and each tool contains assessment things that cowl the aims of the study and analysis queries.
Ethical Consideration:
Agreement permission from the Bioethical committee will be obtained as permission of each dean of the faculty of applied life science and head of the nursing department.
Pilot Study:
A pilot study will be conducted to check the relevance and practicability of knowledge assortment tools on 10% out of 78 nurses involved into the study sample.
Procedures:
Assessment phase:
Visiting the previously elect sitting to assess a range of nurses and out their departments within the mentioned hospitals once getting official permission from the hospital administration.
Implementation phase:
In this phase, the researchers distribute information assortment tools; as a pretest to review cluster before giving applied and standardized protocol, after that offer the program.
Statistical analysis:
Statistical analysis will be done by using software system, the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version (20), at P-value ? 0.05, and a highly statistically vital distinction was thought of at P-value ? 0.001.
Conclusion:
Finally, the current study will prove that there is a highly statistically vital relationship correlate with nurses’ age and their skilled Performance, as well as between their qualifications and their levels of practice regarding administering Oxygen therapy, which will be reflected in patient outcomes.
Recommendations:
Depends on the current study will advocate that, emphasize on the safe application of therapeutic oxygen provided by nurses, as well as enhance the hospital authority to determine continuous training courses, workshops, to maintain safe administration of Oxygen therapy and standard quality of medical aid for patients receiving oxygen therapy. In addition, a standardized protocol of oxygen medical aid should be utilized in hospital departments’ orders altogether.
Limitation of the study:
The current study was conducted on sample size in Sakaka city solely, and it should be applied to all Jouf region to generalize the results for different hospitals.
Acknowledgment:
Thanks to all nurses who participated during this study and unique feelings regarding the hospital’s directors for permitting conducting this study.
References
1) Ahmadi, Z., Sundh, J., Bornefalk-Hermansson, A., & Ekstr?m, M. (2016). Long-term oxygen therapy 24 vs. 15 h/day and mortality
in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Plus One, 11(9), e0163293. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0163293
2) Adapa, F.E., Aziato, l., &Zakariah, A.N., (2015).A qualitative exploration of nurses’ perspectives on clinical oxygen administration in
Ghana. International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences. 2, 42-46.
3) Kane, B., Decalmer, S., & O’Driscoll, B., R. (2013). Emergency oxygen therapy: From guideline to implementation. Breathe. 9 (4) 246-253.
4) O’Driscoll, B., R., Bakerly, N., D., Caress, A., L., Roberts, J., Gaston, M., Newton, M., & Yorke, J. (2016).A study of attitude, beliefs,
And organizational hindering related to safe emergency oxygen therapy for patients with COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) in clinical practice and research. British Medical Journal; 3, 1-4.
5) Gunathilake, R., Lowe, D., Wills, J., Knight, A., & Braude, P. (2014). Implementation of a multicomponent intervention to optimize patient safety through improved oxygen prescriptions in a rural hospital. The Australian Journal of Rural Health, 22(6); 328-333.Nurses’ Knowledge, Practices and Hindering Affecting a Safe Administration of Oxygen Therapy DOI: 10.9790/1959-0703024251 www.iosrjournals.org 51 | Page
6) Mahmoud, A., O., Alseed, H., A., H., F., Awad, H., M., A., A., Ahmed, A., H., & Elhussein, G., E., M., O. (2016). Assessment of knowledge and practice of nurses regarding oxygen therapy in Elmak Nimir University Hospital. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research. 3 (4): 30-35.
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11) Lemma, G., & Weldetsadik, A. (2015). Assessment of nurses’ knowledge, attitude, and practice about oxygen therapy at the emergency department of one federal and three regional hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Thesis.
12) The Padma, K., &Lakshmi, K. (2016). Assess the knowledge regarding pediatric oxygen administration done by and nursing students at Narayana medical college and general hospital, Nellore. International Journal of Applied Research; 2 (9); 852-855.
13) Goharani, R., Miri, M., Kouchek, M., & Sistanizad, M. (2017). The familiarity of physicians and nurses with different aspects of oxygen therapy: A brief report. Journal of Emergency; 5 (1); 39.
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16) Kelly, C., A., & Michelle, M. (2015). How does a healthcare professional perceive oxygen therapy? A critical interpretative synthesis of the literature. Available at:
17) McLeod, M., Barber, N., & Franlin, J.P.(2015). Facilitators and hindering safe medication administration to hospital inpatients: A mixed-method study of nurses’ medication administration process and systems (The MAPS Study). Available at:
18) Dogan, U., & Ovayolu, N. (2017). The effect of health education given by nurses to COPD patients on the daily usage time of oxygen concentrator. Advances in Respiratory Medicine Journal; 85 (1); 15-21.
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20) Doyle, G.R., &McCutcheon, J.A. (2015). Clinical Procedures for Safer Patient Care. Victoria, BC: BC campus. Available at:
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