Classical conditioning is one of the theories which allows us to Paper

Published: 2021-08-30 23:25:08
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Category: Sigmund Freud

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Classical conditioning is one of the theories which allows us to which can be applied to the above question. It was developed by Ivan Pavlov and is a process of learning which includes the concepts of stimulus and response. Classical Conditioning has many advantages, which help to explain the above question. For example, it puts a level of emphasis on learning from the environment. This is vital for development, as it shows that we may not have to rely solely on upbringing from careers, as we learn from our environment. It can also be said However, it can be said that it doesn’t create new behaviours, which is instrumental for forming us as adults. The theory links a natural response to a stimulus which in turn produces an overall response. On the other hand, Classical Conditioning can be used in everyday life. For example, this could be applied to a simple event such as taking a dog for a walk. As soon as its owner shakes its dog lead, the dog would automatically know that it is time to for a walk and would subsequently run towards its owner. As opposed to this, a major disadvantage of classical conditioning could be that it may develop certain phobias. Watson and Rayners’ work are a prime example that fears can be developed and instilled into an individual, especially from a young age, which could have extreme effects on a person in their adulthood. Another theory which has been widely regarded as an explanation for development is John Bowlby’s theory on attachment. One of the major advantages of this theory is that it was tested by Konrad Lorenz, an Austrian Ethologist. Lorenz conducted an experiment, in which he observed the behaviour of goslings. From the experiment, Lorenz found that Goslings follow the first moving object that they see. Because the first moving object they saw was Lorenz, the Goslings proceeded to follow him around. Konrad Lorenz’s experiments helped us to understand that early experience helps to ‘shape’ social behaviour in adulthood (Hinks, 2013). However, an argument against this could be the case of the Czech twins. The twins were discovered at the age of 7 after they were abused by their stepmother. As Bowlby’s theory suggest that when a secure attachment isn’t formed, “it has negative consequences on development, causing a decline in intelligence, depression, aggression, delinquency, and affectionless psychopathy” (David, 2016). Another advantage of Bowlby’s theory is that it is a concept that is seen around the world. Tronick et al. (1992) studied an African tribe, in which the civilians of the tribe live in extended family groups. In these extended family groups, children were looked after by different women daily. Despite spending majority of the day away from their mothers, the children still showed that a primary attachment was formed after 6 months. This is an advantage, as it shows that regardless of cultural differences, Bowlby’s theory on attachment can be applied. On the other hand, Michael Rutter suggests that that Bowlby may have oversimplified Maternal Deprivation. Rutter also focused on the concept of Privation and Deprivation. Erik Erikson was a German – American developmental Psychologist, who came up with the theory of Psychosocial Development. His work was like that of Sigmund Freud, but instead of focusing on the Psychosexual Development, Erikson decided to focus on the social aspects of development. His theory was spilt into several different stages which span across the several age groups, ranging from infancy to maturity. Erik Erikson’s theory has been challenged by many people of different cultures across the world. This means that other various researchers have further validated Erik Erikson’s theory. For example, other research suggests that Adolescents frequently have conflicts with their parents (Laursen et al. 1998). This coincides with Erik Erikson’s theory, particularly stage 5 in which adolescents can become increasingly frustrated with anyone. According to the theory, adolescents may become increasingly frustrated if they struggle to deal with finding their identity. Erikson’s work on Psychosocial Development promotes the idea that personality is not formed during childhood, and that there is a chance that it could continue to change and develop overtime (Chapman, 2006-13). Contrary to this, the study conducted by Watson and Rayner indicates that things which happen in infancy can carry throughout an individual’s life. However, it doesn’t give any attention to the cognitive aspects of development and gives limited attention to emotional development.

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