CSIR National Chemical Laboratory, PuneSubmitted By
Shreya Anil Gonnade
SCHOOL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
MIT ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
ALANDI (D), PUNE
SCHOOL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
This is to certify that the Student Internship Program (SIP) report submitted by Shreya Anil Gonnade, PRN. No.: 0120160364 and Examination Seat No.: T185065 is work done by her and submitted during 2019 2020 academic year.
Faculty Mentor School Internship Coordinator
(Mr. M. Senthil Kumar) (Mr. Sudhir Gandhi)
Coordinator SIP School Dean
(Mr.M. Senthil Kumar) (Mr. M. Senthil Kumar)
I am thankful to the School of Chemical Engineering for granting me this opportunity to do internship at CSIR- National Chemical Laboratory, pune.I am thankful to Mr. M Senthilkumar (Dean School of Chemical Engineering) for evaluating this internship and guiding me wherever necessary. Also, I am thankful to Dr. Harshawardhan Pol (Mentor for Internship Training) who helped me in every aspect possible for making this internship a better one. He was very helpful and cooperative throughout this internship. Under his guidance the internship was completed successfully. Also thankful to Mr. Sudhir Gandhi (coordinator for the internships and training) for his useful inputs as and when necessary. He guided us in selecting a proper internship which is beneficial for us. The positive inputs of all the above have made this internship program a teaching experience for me.
Shreya Anil Gonnade
Table of Contents
No. Topic Page
2. Internship Discussion
2.1 Plastic material
2.2 The evolution of the vinyl plastics
2.3 Raw materials for plastics
2.4 The market for plastics
2.5 The future for plastics
2.6 Relation of Structure to Thermal and Mechanical Properties
2.7 Relation of Structure to Chemical Properties
2.8 What is rheology?
List of figures
Sr no. Figures
1 Batches of PVDF and alumina
2 Raw material for processing
4 FTIR plot
List of tables Sr no. Table
1 Raw materials
This temporary position was conveyed under the polymer preparing segment. In this I have found out about the various procedures which are conveyed for the polymer preparing .Additionally I have watched the different machines and the procedure which are utilized for the Rheology procedure.And furthermore the short presentation about the polymers its various sorts, uses, preparing and different things.
In CSIR-NCL under the polymer handling segment they were additionally managing the ventures with thermax and KPIT likewise it depended on power modules. This entry level position was altogether founded on the polymer handling which are every one of the procedures did for the preparing of polymer, for example, sonication utilizing extruder. And furthermore the polymer press was utilized for creation of the polymer flims for the IR and FTIR test. In this I likewise took in the new advances of polymer preparing which is helpful and simple to utilize.
2. Internship Discussion:
2.1. plastic materials
History specialists every now and again group the early times of man as indicated by the materials that he utilized for making his executes and other fundamental necessities. The most outstanding of these periods are the Stone Age, the Iron Age and the Bronze Age. Such an arrangement of order can’t be utilized to portray resulting periods for with the progression of time man figured out how to utilize different materials and when of the antiquated civilisations of Egypt and Babylonia he was utilizing a scope of metals, stones, woods, pottery, glasses, skins, horns and strands.Until the nineteenth century man’s lifeless belongings, his home, his apparatuses, his furnishings, were produced using assortments of these eight classes of material. During the only remaining century and a half, two new firmly related classes of material have been presented which have not just tested the more seasoned materials for their entrenched uses yet have additionally made conceivable new items which have expanded the scope of exercises of humanity. Without these two gatherings of materials, rubbers and plastics, it is hard to consider how such regular highlights of current life, for example, the engine vehicle, the phone and the TV would ever have been created.
2.2. The advancement of the vinyl plastics
The decade 1930-1940 saw the underlying mechanical improvement of four of the present real thermoplastics: polystyrene, poly(viny1 chloride) (PVC), the polyolefins and poly(methy1 methacrylate). Since every one of these materials can be considered officially as subordinates of ethylene they have, before, been alluded to as ethenoid plastics; be that as it may, the fairly off base term vinyl plastics is presently normally liked. Around 1930 I.G. Farben, in Germany, first created polystyrene, while simultaneously the Dow Compound Organization initiated their eventually fruitful improvement of the material.
2.3. Crude materials for plastics
Today, the plastics business is intensely coordinated with the oil business. Actually a famous view is that it would not have the option to deliver plastics if oil were not accessible. This is altogether different from the circumstance 40-50 years prior when the plastics business was being portrayed as a ‘forager of crude materials’. Before World War I1 the most significant class of thermoplastics, the cellulosics, were delivered from vegetable sources, cellulose being a significant constituent of vegetable issue. From waste oat husks were delivered the furane plastics while courses to the nylons were additionally created from this crude material. Henry Portage had tried different things with soya bean plastics and a few plastics had been gotten from regular elastic. After the war IC1 delivered a protein fiber, Ardil, from ground nuts while vegetable oils turned into a hotspot for creating a portion of the acids utilized in nylon fabricate.
2.4. The market for plastics
Some thought of the dynamite development in the plastics business might be gotten from thought of Table 1.1. While development in rate terms was most noteworthy before 1973, it has stayed high in tonnage terms up to right now. Table 1.2, in light of Current Plastics sources, gives USA utilization figures (in view of offers information) for the principle gatherings of plastics materials. The figures likely disparage the worldwide significance of the real tonnage thermo-plastics since these are additionally produced in amount in creating nations and OPEC nations. The similitude among USA and Western Europe information is very striking. As of late the strength of these two regions, which generally represented at any rate 66% of the market, has diminished and by 1998 was nearer to half of the market. This was because of development underway in oil sending out nations, in Latin America and, especially, in the Pacific Edge zone. Nonetheless, the monetary unrest which especially influenced the last from 1997 is in mid 1999 having an impact whose outcomes are not yet clear.
2.5. The future for plastics
This area was composed for the fourth release distributed in 1982 when there had recently been a further sharp increment in the cost of oil. At the time I was hopeful about the future for plastics, despite the fact that I didn’t envision the droop in oil costs that has occurred from that point forward. Oil stays a limited asset and at some point or another costs will rise once more. Aside from transforming single word and embeddings one other for specialized reasons, I see no motivation to generally change what I composed at that point. The coming of the oil emergency of 1973 prompted desperate expectations about the fate of plastics materials, which to date have not been figured it out. Before endeavoring to foresee what will occur in the following couple of years it is beneficial to think about why the development of plastics was so fantastic during the period 1945-1973. Generally the purpose behind the breathtaking development lay in the connection of three variables:
(1) A developing comprehension of the attributes and capacities of plastics materials.
(2) An improving ability of plastics because of the presence of new materials,improved characteristics with existing sorts and better handling hardware.
(3) A relentless decrease in the expense of fundamental plastics crude materials with respect to the expense of such customary materials as cowhide, paper, metals and earthenware production. As for the primary factor it is troublesome in one section to outline the properties of plastic since
they are so assorted in their conduct. It is, be that as it may, conceivable to make a couple of unpleasant speculations on the qualities of plastics. They are:
(1)Because most plastics might be created in the soften and at very lowtemperatures (for example 200°C) the vitality prerequisites for handling are low. Since plastics by and large have low densities, expenses of transportation and general taking care of are likewise moderately low.
(2) Through the advancement of such strategies as infusion forming it ispossible to make profoundly complex parts in a single activity without the need forassembly work or the age of in excess of a notional measure of scrapmaterial.
(3) Shading isn’t normally confined to the surface yet is all through the mass so harm because of scratching and scraped spot is more subtle than with covered metals.
(4) An amazingly wide scope of surface completions is conceivable which may reenact non plastics materials as well as likewise produce novel impacts.
(5) The materials are commonly fantastic warm encasings, being particularlyuseful in extended structure.
(6) Numerous plastics are heavenly electrical covers including, in numerous occasions, great protection qualities at high frequencies.
(7) Plastics are accessible in a wide scope of qualities, adaptabilities and degrees of strength. Numerous fiber-fortified evaluations have quality per unit weight figures as high as those of numerous metals.
(8) Plastics are accessible in a wide scope of synthetic and dissolvable protections. A few materials are accessible that are water dissolvable while others will withstand such forceful materials as hydrofluoric corrosive.
2.6) Connection of Structure to Warm and Mechanical Properties
2.6.1.introductionIt is some of the time said that three elements decide if a polymer is smooth, rubbery or fiber-shaping under a given arrangement of conditions. These are the chain adaptability, the interchain fascination and the normality of the polymer. The relationship has been communicated diagrammatically by Swallow’ (Figure 4.1). The significance of these parameters emerges from their impact on the glass progress temperature, the capacity of a material to take shape and, where important, the crystalline softening point. In this part explicit impacts which have a heading on these last three properties will be talked about. Toward the part of the bargain there is a short exchange of basic highlights which decide certain chose properties.
2.6.2 Elements influencing the glass progress temperature
There are various basic highlights which have a course on the estimation of the glass progress temperature. Since this temperature is that at which sub-atomic pivot about single bonds winds up limited, clearly these highlights are ones which impact the simplicity of turn. These can be isolated into two gatherings:
(1) Components which influence the natural or characteristic portability of a solitary chain
(2) Those components whose impact is felt as a result of their impact on the closeness considered without anyone else. what’s more, communication of numerous polymer chains.
2.7) Connection of Structure to Synthetic Properties
It is once in a while expressed that a given material has ‘a great concoction obstruction’, or on the other hand the material might be expressed to be poor or magnificent in this regard. Such a widely inclusive proclamation can be minimal in excess of a harsh generalisation,particularly since there are numerous aspects to the conduct of polymers in compound conditions.
There are various properties of a polymer about which data is required before point by point proclamations can be made about its synthetic properties. The most significant of these are:
(1) The dissolvability attributes.
(2) The impact of explicit synthetic substances on atomic structure, especially in up until now
(3) The impact of explicit synthetic substances and situations on polymer properties at
(4) The impact of high-vitality illumination.
(5) The maturing and enduring of the material.
(6) Penetrability and dispersion attributes.
(7) Poisonous quality. as they lead to debasement and cross-connecting responses. raised temperatures. Prior to managing every one of these perspectives, it is valuable to consider, in all respects quickly, the sorts of bonds which hold iotas and particles together.
A substance will be a dissolvable for another material if the atoms of the twomaterials are good, for example they can exist together on the atomic scale and thereis no inclination to isolate. This announcement does not show the speed at whichsolution may occur since this will rely upon extra contemplations suchas the sub-atomic size of the potential dissolvable and the temperature.
Particles oftwo various species will almost certainly coincide if the power of fascination betweendifferent atoms isn’t not exactly the powers of fascination between two likemolecules of either species. On the off chance that the normal power of fascination between dissimilarmolecules An and B is FAB and that between comparative particles of sort B FBB andbetween comparable atoms of sort A FAA then for similarity FAB 2 FBB and FAR 2 FAA. This is indicated schematically in Figure 5.5(a).
2.8) What is rheology?
The term ‘Rheology’ * was concocted by Educator Bingham of Lafayette School, Easton, Dad, on the guidance of an associate, the Teacher of Works of art. It implies the investigation of the twisting and stream of issue. This definition was acknowledged when the American Culture of Rheology was established in 1929. That first gathering heard papers on the properties and conduct of such generally varying materials as black-top, ointments, paints, plastics and elastic, which gives some thought of the extent of the subject and furthermore the various logical orders which are probably going to be included. These days, the degree is even more extensive. Huge advances have been made in biorheology, in polymer rheology and in suspension rheology. There has additionally been a noteworthy energy about the significance of rheology in the compound handling ventures. Openings no uncertainty exist for increasingly broad uses of rheology in the biotechnological enterprises.
There are currently national Social orders of Rheology in numerous nations. The English Society of Rheology, for instance, has more than 600 individuals comprised of researchers from broadly contrasting foundations, including arithmetic, material science, designing and physical science. From numerous points of view, rheology has grown up. 1.2 Verifiable point of view In 1678, Robert Hooke built up his “Actual Hypothesis of Versatility”. He suggested that “the intensity of any spring is in a similar extent with the strain thereof”, for example in the event that you twofold the pressure you twofold the expansion. This structures the fundamental reason behind the hypothesis of old style (tiny strain) flexibility. At the opposite part of the bargain, Isaac Newton offered thoughtfulness regarding fluids and in the “Principia” distributed in 1687 there shows up the accompanying speculation related with the unfaltering straightforward shearing stream appeared in Fig. 1.1: “The opposition which emerges from the absence of trickiness of the pieces of the fluid, different things being equivalent, is corresponding to the speed with which the pieces of the fluid are isolated from each other”.
2.8.1) Segments of rheological research
Rheology is considered by both college scientists and industrialists. The previous may have elusive just as down to earth explanations behind doing as such, however the industrialist, for evident reasons, is driven by a progressively practical inspiration. Be that as it may, whatever the foundation or inspiration, laborers in rheology are compelled to wind up familiar with certain well-characterized sub-territories of intrigue which are point by point underneath. These are
(I) rheometry; (ii) constitutive conditions; (iii) estimation of stream conduct in (non-rheometric) complex geometries; (iv) computation of conduct in complex streams.
2.8.2) RheometryIn ‘rheometry’, materials are researched in basic streams like the enduring basic shear stream previously examined. It is a significant part of rheological research. Little plentifulness oscillatory-shear stream (s3.5) and extensional stream (Part 5) are additionally significant. The inspiration for any rheometrical study is frequently the expectation that watched conduct in mechanical circumstances can be connected with some effectively estimated rheometrical work. Rheometry is in this way of potential significance in quality control and procedure control. It is likewise of potential significance in evaluating the helpfulness of any proposed constitutive model for the test material, regardless of whether this depends on sub-atomic or continuum thoughts. In a roundabout way, along these lines, rheometry might be applicable in mechanical procedure demonstrating. This will be particularly so in future when the maximum capacity of computational liquid elements utilizing enormous PCs is acknowledged inside a rheological setting.
3.1. Raw materials for polymer processing
clay Weight (Kg)
Table :- Raw materials table
3.2 Mini project
Material :- -PVDF
Take empty petri dish and wash it properly
Take the respective sample and put it on dish and allow it for drying in oven
Cover it with aluminium foil
Put it on oven for about 2 -3hours
Take out sample and make the batches respectively
PVDF=5 gm(4 batches)
PVDF+alumina= 4.75+0.25=5gm(4 batches)
Put all the batches separately in zip bag
Do the sonication at T=200 degree Celsius, RPM=100 t=5 min
Make the flim on polymer press
Perform for the IR and FTIR
Fig:- Batches of PVDF and Alumina
Fig:- raw material for processing
Fig:- Batches of PVDF and Alumina
Fig:- FTIR PLOT
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BiL.i.MEYER, E w., Te-xtbook of Polymer Science, Interscience, New York
JENKINS. A. D. (Ed.), Polymer Science, North-Holland, Amsterdam (1972)