Carotenes are red, orange or yellow pigments and physicians are water soluble pigments found in the cytoplasm. (www. Rockery. Due) Chromatography comes from the Greek words chromo and graph for Color Writing. The technique was developed by Mikhail Test who used it for separating pigments that made up plant dyes. Chromatography is a very valuable technique used for separating mixtures. It can be used for many things including find traces of drugs in urine and analyzing components of pollutants. (www. Exploratory. Due) Chloroplasts are special organelles found in plant cells.
These organelles contain the plant cells chlorophyll providing it its green color. Because chlorophyll is important in making photosynthesis possible, it s a very important organelle in keeping the plant alive. (www. Selective. Com) Light reactions are the photo part of photosynthesis. These steps convert solar energy into chemical energy which then goes to the Calvin Cycle. (Campbell 189) Procedures: Exercise AAA- In this lab we separated the pigments from a spinach leaf. We started off by obtaining a long strip of paper and cutting it into a point.
Bio Lab Report Sample
Then, we rubbed the crushed cells from the spinach leaf in a line 1. 5 CM from above the point. The paper strip was then put into a graduated cylinder with 1 CM of solvent in the bottom. We put a stopper over the top of the cylinder and attached as the solvent moved up the paper. When it got to about 1 CM from the top of the paper we removed it and marked the bottom of each pigment band. We marked 5 different pigment bands which showed us the different pigments in the plant. We also marked where the solvent stopped, or the solvent front.
Then we used this data to find out which pigments were which color. Exercise B- In this lab we chloroplasts were extracted from spinach leaves and incubated with DIP in the presence of light. We started out by labeling 5 suspects and covered cavetti 2 because it was the control for the experiment. Then, we put 1 ml of hostage butter into each cavetti and into cavetti 1 we added 4 ml of distilled water. Then, we added 3 ml of distilled water and 1 ml of DIP into suspects 2, 3, and 4. Finally, in cavetti 5 we added 3 ml plus 3 drops of distilled water and 1 ml of DIP.
To finish off cavetti 1 we added 3 drops of unbilled chloroplasts and inserted it into the spectrophotometer. All other tubes will be measured as a percentage of light transmitted through this tube. After that was measured, we added 3 drops of unbilled chloroplast to cavetti 2, removed it from its foil sleeve and read the percent transmittance. We put it back in the foil sleeve and laced the cavetti in the incubation rack in the light. We measured the percent transmittance every 5 minutes until we reached 15 minutes. The same thing was done to cavetti 3, however cavetti 3 did not have a covering over it.
The one that showed the least change was the unbilled dark one and the one that showed the most was the boiled light cavetti. This shows us that amount of light and chloroplasts are very important for photosynthesis to occur. Analysis: 1. What factors are involved in the separation of the pigments? The solubility, size of particles, and their attractiveness to the paper. 2. Would you expect the RFC value of a pigment to be the same if a different solvent were used? No, the different solubility of the pigments would change the RFC value. 3.
What type of chlorophyll does the reaction center contain? What are the roles of the other pigments? The reaction center contains chlorophyll a. The other pigments collect other light waves and transfer the energy to chlorophyll a. 4. What is the function of DIP in this experiment? It serves as an electron carrier and changes colors when accepting electrons. 5. What molecule found in chloroplasts does DIP replace in this experiment? NADIA 6. What is the source of the electrons that will reduce DIP? The electrons come from the photolysis of water. . What was measured with the spectrophotometer in this experiment? The effect of photosynthesis and the light in increasing amounts of time. The amount of light that passes through spec 20 measures the percent of light that passes through the cavetti due to DIP reduction. 8. What is the effect of darkness on the reduction of DIP? No reaction will occur because no photosynthesis is happening. 9. What is the effect of boiling the chloroplasts on the subsequent reduction of DIP? Boiling denatures the protein molecules and stops reduction. 10.
What reasons can you give for the difference in the percentage of transmittance between the live chloroplasts that were incubated in the light and those that were kept in the dark? No light available in the dark cavetti so no photosynthesis, which caused for the DIP to stay dark allowing little light through. In the light cavetti, the photosynthesis occurred causing for the DIP to clear up allowing more light through. 11. Cavetti l:blank used to recalibrate the instrument between readings Cavetti 2: to observe the rate of photosynthesis without the presence of light Cavetti 3: to observe the rate of photosynthesis tit light.