After fossil fuels are created and depleted, they cannot be replaced in our civilization. This extremely long process takes thousands of years and if we were to replenish the depleted fossil fuels it would take millions of years. 2) How are fossil fuels formed? How do environmental conditions determine what type Of fossil fuel is formed in a given location? Why are fossil fuels often concentrated in localized deposits? Fossil fuels form by preserving the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter. This organic matter then undergoes a slow process of anaerobic decomposition under sediments which form kerosene. After this, geothermal heating and pressure take action to change kerosene to create crude oil and thermometric natural gas.
As a result crude oil and gas rest in porous rock layers. Lastly, coal is formed when plant matter is compacted very tightly that there is little decomposed. Environmental conditions determine what type of fossil fuel is formed in a given location by studying the chemical composition of the starting material, checking the temperatures and pressures of the material, any presence or absence of anaerobic decomposer, and how much time it takes. Fossil fuels are concentrated in localized deposits due to the uneven distribution on earth’s surface because some parts of the world contain more fossil fuels than others. The duration of a nation’s fossil fuel depends on extraction, consumption, and imports/exports to other nations.
What Is Meant By Peak Oil
4) Describe how coal is used to generate electricity. In a coal- fired power plant, electricity is generated by combustion coal to convert water to steam and leads to turbine. First, the coal is crushed and blown inside a high temperature furnace. Heat from combustion boils the water and the steam forms into turbine to turn the generator. This generates electricity by passing magnets through copper coils.
Thereafter, steam is cooled and compressed in a circling loop and returns to the furnace. 5) How have geologists estimated the total amount of oil beneath the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge’s 1 002 Areas? How does this amount differ from the “technically recoverable” and “economically recoverable” amounts of oil? Geologists use seismic waves to survey the estimated underground geologic conditions at a site. By using techniques Of ground, air, and seismic graphs they show measurements that can infer the volume of the underground reserve. At Onwards 1002 Area, the total reserves are estimated between 1 1. 6 and 31.
5 billion barrels. The technically recoverable fraction of that total is between 4. 3 and 1 1. 8 billion barrels. The economically recoverable fraction varies with the price per barrel of the oil.
At $30 per barrel it would be 3. 0 to 10. 4 billion barrels. 6) How do we create petroleum products? Provide examples of several of these products. Crude oil is a mix of hydrocarbons, so e can create petroleum products by separating its components.
At the start of this process, crude oil is boiled or cooled, generating hydrocarbon components to evaporate and rise through a distillation column. Higher oils are separated from lower oils. As a result the refinement process produces an area of petroleum products such as diesel, gasoline, jet fuel, and other products. Some examples of these petroleum products are a toothbrush, shower curtains, cosmetics, and detergent which are products that are pretty common to us. 7) What is meant by “peak oil’? Why do many experts think we are about to pass the global production peak for oil? What consequences could there be for our society if we do not shift soon to renewable energy sources? “Peak oil” refers to when the rate of production of oil will reach its highest rate and decline gradually.
If our production declines after the peak Of oil and demand continues to increase, scientists say we will fall into an oil shortage. Many experts think we are about to pass the production peak for oil since Hubert peak was proved to be accurate, every since 1970, U. S oil reduction peaked and has continued to decline ever since. Factors of this problem were the discoveries of new oil fields that peaked 30 years ago, but we still continue extract and consume more oil than we have been finding. In addition depending on year to year use for production, would make us unable to realize that we have pasted the peak of oil production until four years after, so we wouldn’t even known if we passed the peak or not.
For example many oil companies and government are untrustworthy about the amount of oil reserves there are, and the estimated difference on how much e can extract based on how much oil there is. Also, a U. S geological survey report shows that there are about 2 trillion barrels of oil left in the world and not 1 trillion. Developed countries such as the U. S continue to use this limited supply of oil because their demand is increasing rather than a developing country where they are beginning to industrialized.
One thing is for sure, if the peak of oil does come about, it would affect the lives of everyone in the world, negatively. Cheap oil would be used to transport goods over long distances, he world’s economy would fall, and economies would become very limited. Urge cities such as New York City would no longer be supported by agriculture and without petroleum based fertilizers; we wouldn’t be able to feed the world. Suburbs would turn into slums and crime rates would rise. The abuse of demand and supply of oil would indeed lead to these economic, social, and political outcomes if we do not shift into renewable energy sources.
8) Describe three environmental impacts of fossil fuel production and consumption. Compare contrasting views regarding the environmental impacts of drilling for oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Burning crude oil adds greenhouse gases to the atmosphere; this creates climate change and global warming. Another impact of fossil fuel production and consumption is when burning crude oil releases sulfur dioxide (ASS) and nitrogen oxides into our atmosphere, this creates industrial or photochemical smog and acid rain. Pollution is another problem to the environment, oil spills can contaminate plants and animals because crude oil is toxic which can lead to killing them along with destroying biodiversity.
This does not only apply to animals, but to humans as well by putting us at a high risk for health problems, even cancer due to exposure since burning oil can cause irritation of eyes, throat and lungs. Ever since oil spills have occurred there have been different perspectives regarding the drilling for oil in NAIR. On one side, scientists are concerned about damage to habitats in the Alaskan wildlife, based on the results of previous experience and small-scale manipulative studies. On the other hand, scientists argue that drilling at NAIR would have title environmental impact because of new technology that would be sensitive to the environment. 9) Give an example of a clean coal technology.
Now describe how carbon capture and storage is intended to work. Drying coal with high water content is an example of clean coal technology, this is a cleaner way of burning and we gain more power from coal through gasification, which is less pollutant. Clean coal technologies are able to remove chemical contaminants from power plant emissions. Carbon capture storage intends to prevent carbon dioxide from coal combustion to reach our air. It seizes carbon dioxide emissions, turns it from a gas to liquid form and then stores it in the ocean or underground.
This method also prevents greenhouse gases from increasing and climate change. 10) Describe two main approaches to energy conservation and give a specific example of each. Converting to renewable energy sources is a big approach to energy conservation by spending money for new technology, so our renewable source of energy would be the only thing we need. This change would solve many problems of depletion, price values, international policies, and environmental consequences. Examples of renewable energy sources are electric cars, and electricity generated from wind or solar energy.
These sources conserve our energy. Another approach is personal choice, to reduce a person’s energy consumption in order to conserve energy. This can be done by driving less and instead using a bicycle, turn off electric generated appliances when they are not in use, regulating thermostat use, and using less energy appliances. This choice can save you money while conserving resources. SEEKING SOLUTIONS 2) Compare the effects of coal and oil consumption on the environment.
Which process, our use of oil or use of oil, do you think has ultimately had greater environmental impact, and why? What steps could governments, industries, and individuals take to reduce environmental impacts? The consumption of coal affects the environment by destroying land and habitats, declined biodiversity and erosion. It produces acid rain and a ton of contaminants. When coal is mined the landslides of the earth are disrupted due to mountain top removal and miners are at a health risk to having black lung disease. Oil also affects the environment in a similar way through a recess called “petroleum production”, it is a form of mining that pumps oil and gas from underground to the surface which also disorganized landslides. Workers exposed to transporting and refining oil are also at risk for carcinogens.
In my opinion think oil has a greater environmental impact because we have such a limited supply left in certain regions, that if we take more from that area such as NAIR we would destroy biodiversity and maybe pollute it through oil spills, therefore it puts that environment in a potential risk for being degraded. Steps that can be taken by governments, industries ND individuals that can reduce environmental impacts are by following a renewable energy act. It would teach us to conserve the energy that we have and not depend so much on fossil fuels, especially Oil and coal. 3) If the United States and other developed countries reduced dependence on foreign oil and on fossil fuels in general, do you think that their economies would benefit or suffer? Might your answer be different from the short term and the long term? What factors come into play in trying to make such a judgment? At the start of reducing dependence on foreign oil and fossil fuels, heir economies would suffer because they have put their usage under a limited amount and there could be an economic depression through health problems, money and social disruption. This explains the short term side of it because this option is struggle from the beginning because of the change but on the long term of this, they would greatly benefit.
It would be an introduction to a world of just renewable energy and conserved states of fossil fuels. Economic, social and political aspects take part into making this judgment. ) Contrast the differences of the Going people of Nigeria with hose of the citizens of Alaska. How have they been similar and different? Do you think businesses or governments should take steps to ensure that local people benefit from oil drilling operations? How could they do so? Alaskan withhold a better representation within their own state and country rather than the Going people in which they don’t have such a strong standing. They both have issues with oil companies that want to extract, transport and refine crude oil by all mean necessary because these companies believe it will do little impact to that environment.
The Alaskan hold a representation in congress and have federal judicial courts to settle the oil drilling operations. However the Going people are sharing the same oil problems with neighboring people and have protested to oil companies about drilling crude oil on their land. Businesses and governments should take steps to ensure that local people benefit from oil drilling operations because that area is sacred to them but oppression on these people is not the way to go about it. Politics are involved, international laws should be established and their rights should be defied Ned.