Ecstasy Drug Information Paper

Published: 2021-09-03 03:15:10
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Category: Mental Health

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This essay sample on Ecstasy Drug Information provides all necessary basic information on this matter, including the most common “for and against” arguments. Below are the introduction, body and conclusion parts of this essay.
1
Is MDMA ( rapture ) a safe drug to take? Discuss in relation to findings from recent research.
MDMA or Ecstasy ( besides known by a figure of different names, such as vitamin E, x, and eckies ) is a psychedelic drug, a drug which primary alters perceptual experience, knowledge or temper ( Abraham, Aldridge & A ; Gogia, 1996 ) . It is said to advance feelings of love, friendly relationship and euphory. ( Drugs and Crime Prevention Committee, 2003 ) . Some users claim that the drug helps them to swear others and to understand themselves better ( Greer, G. & A ; Tolbert, 1986 ) . It normally comes in the signifier of a pill which is ingested. However, unwanted effects of MDMA can include fainting, sickness and emesis, a rushing bosom, teeth grinding, and katzenjammer effects which can last for a figure of yearss such as fatigue, and depression.
Ecstasy Paper
To explicate these conflicting positions of how the dyspepsia of Ecstasy can impact the human encephalon, experiments on animate beings have been performed. Green et Al ( 2003 ) argue that MDMA decreases encephalon degrees of 5-hydroxytryptamine in animate beings, and amendss the subdivisions through which serotonin-producing nerve cells reach out and link to other cells. The function 5-hydroxytryptamine is known to set temper, emotion, slumber and appetency. Therefore 5-hydroxytryptamine is a cardinal mechanism in the control of legion behavioral and physiological maps. Decreased serotoninergic neurotransmission has been implied to play a cardinal function in the cause of depression. The concentration of synaptic 5-hydroxytryptamine is controlled straight by its re-uptake into the pre-synaptic terminus and, therefore, drugs barricading 5-hydroxytryptamine conveyance have been successfully used for the intervention of depression. Therefore, the euphory effects of Ecstasy can be assumed to alleviate systems of unhappiness and anxiousness – nevertheless, the overall effects of taking the drug have negative effects for the serotoninergic system. Therefore, Ecstasy can non be classified as a safe drug to take in the chase of alleviating depressive symptoms. However, these consequences have been occurred through experiments on animate beings. It is hence hard to reassign these effects in the animate being encephalon to deduce that alterations in the human encephalons will be the same. To battle these disagreements McCann et Al ( 1994 ) have investigated the long term harm that taking Ecstasy can hold on the human encephalon. Using a radioactive chemical that binds to serotonin receptors, the research workers have shown from antielectron emanation imaging encephalon scans that Ecstasy users have fewer receptors for the neurotransmitter. They conclude that ‘MDMA is toxic to encephalon 5-hydroxytryptamine neurons.’
However, this is non the lone effect of devouring the drug. Research workers have found that MDMA has affects on the cognitive procedures – such as thought and memory. Surveies have confirmed that MDMA users suffer poorer memory and impaired idea procedures, compared with people who have n’t tried the drug ( Morgan, 2000 ) . It has besides been found to interfere with procedures such as sleep rhythms ( Allen et al, 1993 ) . However, the job with imputing these effects to ecstasy is that people who take MDMA, it can non be ruled out that these people often stay up wholly dark dancing and may besides take other drugs. To look into the stray effects of rapture, Ricaurte et Al ( 2002 ) , gave squirrel monkeys and baboons doses of the drug that they claimed were similar to those taken by some clubbers in a individual dark. This dosage administrated to the animate beings was found to wholly destruct nerve cells that produce the neurotransmitter Dopastat, and led to a status similar to Parkinson ‘s disease. Furthermore, 2 out of the 10 animate beings died. Ricaurte et Al ( 2002 ) conclude that “ A immature person who sustains hurt to these dopamine cells and depletes their modesty may be at greater hazard of paralysis agitans. ” It is widely-accepted from literature reappraisals that encephalon Dopastat declines with age ; hence, taking the drug Ecstasy AIDSs to rush up the aging procedure and susceptibleness for developing diseases such a Parkinson’s.
However, how relevant is this scientific grounds to users of the drug itself? Whiteaker ( 2004 ) conducted qualitative research in the signifier of questionnaires to detect how users and non-users perceived the safeness of the drug. It was found that the two groups had different constructs in respects to the possible dangers of Ecstasy. Nearly half of the drug users questioned describing that they felt the drug was reasonably safe to utilize. The non-user felt it was reasonably insecure ( and mostly set this down to the deficiency of information they felt they had about the drug ) . In mention to the side-effects of taking ecstasy, the bulk of users ( 64.6 % ) reported ‘coming down’ and 29.2 % reported doing bad determinations as the effects of taking the drug.While one tierce of drug users reported side effects, and 43.8 % of users reported bad yearss, these responses are ill-defined as to exactly what injuries are being experienced by users. Less than a 6th of the respondents in Whiteaker ( 2004 ) research reported no injuries, nevertheless, it is non clear how many times these people used the drug, as six of them reported that they did non utilize any more. Consequently they may hold experienced no injury as a effect of merely seeking Ecstasy the one time, hence, these consequences are non really representative, and it is inaccurate to generalize findings from these responses. Different responses were made for the reactions of users and non-users in response to the possibility of if they find themselves or a friend in problem. Drug users were reported to follow schemes such as imbibing H2O. This may be explained by their greater instruction sing the dangers of desiccation. However, it needs to be noted that this can besides be a unsafe method of covering with the state of affairs, for illustration, in the instance of Anna Wood, have really died from inordinate hydration ( Sabin, 2002 ) .
Therefore, to measure whether MDMA ( Ecstasy ) is a safe drug to take, is a complex inquiry and needs mention to non merely the scientific grounds, but the societal deductions of drug usage. The relevancy of scientific research about the harmful effects of the drug bears small connexion to the grounds why people choose or do non take to experiment with the drug. Highlighted in Whiteaker ( 2004 ) research is that instruction is a valuable thing – non needfully to warn people off from the drug, but to educate them on how they can react in a troubled state of affairs. However, we can non disregard the scientific grounds that taking Ecstasy can hold profound effects on one’s cognitive and emotional province. Therefore, to claim Ecstasy is a safe drug is non a feasible option – and anyone who uses the drug should utilize it with cautiousness.
Mentions
Diaries
Abraham, H. D. , Aldridge, A. M. & A ; Gogia, P. ( 1996 ) .Neuropsychopharmacology 14, 285–298
Allen, R. P. , McCann, U. D. & A ; Ricaurte, G. A. ( 1993 )Sleep 16, 560–564
Greer, G. & A ; Tolbert, R. J. ( 1986 ) .Psychoactive Drugs 18, 319–327. ChemPort
Green, A. R. , Mechan, A. O. , Elliott, J. M. , O’Shea, E. & A ; Colado, M. I. ( 2003 ) .Pharmacol. Rev. 55, 463–508.
McCann, U. D. , Ridenour, A. , Shaham, Y. & A ; Ricaurte, G. A. ( 1994 ) .Neuropsychopharmacology, 10, 129–138.
Morgan, M. J. ( 2000 ) .Psychopharmacology 152, 230–248.
Ricaurte, G. A. , Yuan, J. , Hatzidimitriou, G. , Cord, B. J. & A ; McCann, U. D. ( 2002 ) .Science 297, 2260–2263.
Internet
Sabin, K. ( 2002 ) Drugs and Death Retrieved on 31 March 2004 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.newsreview.com/issues/sacto/2002-05-16/news.asp
Whiteaker ( 2004 )‘The New Youth Drug Culture: Friends, Parties and Drug Cocktails ‘A study of university pupils about ‘party drug’ usage. VAADA. The University of Melbourne. Cited on hypertext transfer protocol: //www.vaada.org.au/Party % 20Drugs % 20Report % 20June % 2004.doc.
Other
Drugs and Crime Prevention Committee ( 2004 and 2003 ) , Inquiry into Amphetamines and Party Drug Use in Victoria, Melbourne.

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