Kidney stones are also referred to as renal calculi and are formed in the kidney as a result of buildup of minerals that are being excreted from the body as waste. This buildup can be caused by superannuation which is when there is too high of a concentration of salts and proteins and this makes the metals precipitate into solid form within the kidney. Kidney stones are not all the same chemically, as shown in figure 2, Calcium stones are probably the most common stone which can combine to make Calcium Oxalate (Acacia), Calcium Phosphate (Ca(PEP)2), Uric Acid (CHANNEL), Strive (Neighing).
Figure 2. Frequency of Kidney Stones. Data from “Kidney Stone Disease. ” The fact that there are differing chemicals that make up kidney stones presents the problem of solubility in which some may dissolve in acidic solutions or may not dissolve at all. The kidney stones persist in the body due to the fact that the previously mentioned compounds are insoluble in water. This requires unusual tactics to rid the patient of kidney stones such as lithography in which shock waves are used to break up kidney stones into much smaller pieces that can more easily be passed.
Some home remedies are accredited with being able to dissolve the kidney stones in the kidney and being quite effective as well. In this experiment lemon juice is used in an attempt to dissolve a few of the most common kidney stones because of its high citric acid content. Perhaps the best treatment for kidney stones is prevention. In this case one would drink large amounts of water and be careful of too much salt and protein intake. The experiment conducted involved such scientific concepts such as SSP, percent yield, and percent error.
Kidney Stone Analysis Lab
SSP is a scientific concept in which the solubility of a impound into water at 25 co is quantified into a number which can be calculated and analyzed. Percent yield is a procedure which indicates how fully a reaction took place by comparing the actual mass attained with the theoretical value that should be attained assuming a complete reaction with perfectly standard conditions. Percent error shows the difference in the final experimental value with an accepted theoretical value which shows how accurate the experiment was which can show if the experiment is credible or not.
Methods Kidney stones needed to be synthesized in order to carry out the experiment. Figure 3. Kidney Stone Formations Calcium Oxalate: Cacao + Nuanced enact + Acacia Strive: Magic + NANNY + Naphtha Neighing +20- + NON- + Ana+ + H+ calcium Phosphate: unhappy + acacia enact + The reactions in Figure 3 were carried out in attempts of producing 5. 00 g samples of each of the three stones. To do so, it was required to find the limiting reactant in order to calculate the appropriate amount of each substance to use.
Below can be seen the calculations of how to find the limiting reactant for the reaction yielding calcium Oxalate. Figure 4. Finding amounts of materials to use Calcium Oxalate (Acacia) Calcium Chloride (Cacao) Sodium Oxalate (Nuanced) As can be seen in Figure 4, the first step is to find how many moles of Acacia are in 5. 00 g of the substance, then the number of moles is multiplied by the molecular weights of each of the reactants because the reaction is 1:1:1 with respect to the included compounds.
This shows how much of each reactants to get in order to get our optimal amount of substance without much waste. However, the percent yield of each substance was quite low, as can be seen in Figure 5 and the calculations that lead to finding percent yield are as follows for he reaction yielding Calcium Oxalate, keeping in mind that 5. 00 g is the desired dry mass. Example Calculation: Calcium Oxalate (Acacia): Figure 5. Percent Yield of Precipitates Once the stones were collected, thoroughly dried, and massed, 0. 00 g of the Calcium Oxalate was placed into an Erlenmeyer flask and dissolved in the home remedy: lemon juice. The stone readily dissolved into 10 ml of lemon juice to the point that no precipitate could be seen. 30 drops of ammonia buffer solution was added to raise the pH of the system to 10. At this point, 8 drops of indicator Ricochet black T) was added to the solution. .05 M EDIT solution was then added to a reroute above a waste beaker and the EDIT was run through the burette until there was no air bubble in the burette.
Then the first reading was taken off of the burette before the titration started and then the EDIT solution was carefully added to the experimental solution in the Erlenmeyer flask below. This was done for a total of 3 trials, however, only for the Calcium Oxalate stone because of time constraints and material constraints. Figure 6 displays the data that was collected during this process. Figure 6. Data from Titrating Acacia solution Results With use of Figure 6, the amount of EDIT that must be added to 0. 0 g of Acacia can be averaged to 53. 2 ml of . 05 M EDIT (H2O-). Figure 7. Finding percent dissolved of Calcium Oxalate EDIT: Ca+ + H2O- Cay 2- + UH+ *Notice Ca+:H2O-= 1 : 1 (Complexities Ca Determination) Amount of Acacia dissolved: In Figure 7, it is determined that 335 % of the Calcium Oxalate kidney stone dissociated in the lemon juice by first finding how many moles of EDIT were used by multiplying the military of the EDIT by the average amount of DE TA seed to titrate the experimental solution.
The equation for the reaction between a free calcium ion and an EDIT compound in pH of 10 is a reaction which allows to see how many calcium ions were stabilized and therefore dissociated from the Acacia. This number of moles can then be multiplied by the molecular mass of Acacia to find the initial weight of the ions that dissociated which comes to be . 335 g of Acacia. This mass is then divided by the amount that was in solution which was 0. 10 g, then multiplied by 100 to give a final percent of dissociation for the Acacia in lemon juice of 335 96.
This means that the dined stones dissolved into 3. 35 times the amount of ions than it could possibly, suggesting quite large errors in the experiment/procedures occurred. Figure 8. Finding SSP for the dissociation of Calcium Oxalate Concentration of Ca+: SSP for the titration: [Ca+] [CHECK-] SSP= (0. 2377)2 = 0. 0565 *Theoretical SSP= 2. 3210-9 (Trot, Chemistry, A-12) Percent error: The calculations in Figure 8 show the steps needed to find the SSP for the dissociation of Acacia.
The concentration of Ca+ ions within the solution and buffer solution (10 ml of solvent and 1 ml of buffer) was found by dividing the umber of moles found in Figure 7 by the amount of solution present. The SSP for this particular reaction can be found to be a 1:1 ration between the Ca+ ion and the CHECK- ion which allows for simple squaring of the concentration of the Ca+ ion to give the experimental SSP. However, when compared to the theoretical value of SSP for the dissociation of Acacia at 25 co, the experimental value obtained is shown to be largely incorrect with a percent error of 2. 35<011. Discussion The data that shows a 335% dissociation and an overall percent error of 2. 435×1011 of CaC204 which means that the kidney stones dissolved into 3. 5 times the amount of ions than it could possibly, suggesting quite large errors in the experiment/procedures which were probably caused by the conflict between the yellow color of the lemon juice and the indicator which is supposed to turn blue, however, the solution turned green very gradually which must have led to the incorrect results.
If the experiment had not had such large errors, the experiment would have shown whether or not lemon juice could dissolve kidney stones effectively or not. Perhaps the lemon juice had dissolved the Calcium Oxalate more effectively than water at standard conditions which could have undistributed to the large error because the error states the Calcium Oxalate dissociated much more than expected which would favor the possibility that the lemon juice is a much better solvent than water.
However, further tests would be needed to be conducted to confirm this theory. Conclusion Kidney stones are a harmful and sometimes dangerous renal condition in which a compound that is insoluble in water gets trapped in the kidney and can be very difficult to expel. This led to the investigation of whether home remedies can help with kidney stones by dissolving them. However, the decision to use memo juice in the experiment was flawed and therefore the results cannot be used for scientific data collection.