Public Health Paper

Published: 2021-08-31 07:00:10
essay essay

Category: Health Care Costs

Type of paper: Essay

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1) Which of the following phrases best describes the authors’ view of the status of health education? Health education is

A) a calling.
B) a profession.
C) an applied discipline.
D) an emerging profession.

Answer: D
2) The body of knowledge, principles, and concepts used in health education/promotion come from a variety of disciplines. Which one of the following is not one the major disciplines supporting health education/promotion?

A) Physics
B) Biology
C) Sociology
D) Medical sciences

Answer: A
3) Which one of those below is not used to define a profession? A profession

A) has a code of ethics.
B) provides an income.
C) provides a unique and essential social service.
D) has an association that represents the profession.

Answer: B
4) A professional prepared individual trained to use appropriate educational strategies and methods to facilitate the development of policies, procedures, interventions and systems conducive to the health of individuals, groups, and communities is known as a

A) community planner.
B) promotion specialist.
C) health educator.
D) professional.

Answer: C
5) During the 1850s to 1950s, the primary focus of the public health effort in the United States was to

A) reduce health care costs.
B) control chronic diseases.
C) control infectious diseases.
D) develop national health care coverage.

Answer: C
6) The greatest potential for reducing morbidity, saving lives, and reducing health care costs in the United States through health promotion and disease prevention was realized by the

A) early 1900s.
B) late 1950s.
C) mid 1970s.
D) early 2000s.

Answer: C
7) Which one of the following is not recognized as a dimension of health?

A) Physical
B) Emotional
C) Spiritual
D) Political

Answer: D
8) An approach to health that focuses on balancing the dimensions of a person’s life through the adoption of health enhancing behaviors is known as

A) public health.
B) wellness.
C) community health.
D) health promotion.

Answer: B
9) Which of the following surveys utilizes a telephone interview to collect health data?

A) The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
B) The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey
C) The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System
D) The National Health Interview Survey

Answer: D
10) Which of the following surveys collects health data about college students?

A) The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
B) The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey
C) The National College Health Assessment
D) The National Health Interview Survey

Answer: C
11) The federal government’s 1980 document that provided a blueprint of the health promotion and disease prevention strategy is known as

A) Code Blue.
B) Healthy People 2020.
C) Quality of Life in the United States.
D) Promoting Health/Preventing Disease: Objectives for a Nation.

Answer: D
12) The number of deaths per 100,000 population is known as

A) crude rate.
B) a specific rate.
C) the mortality rate.
D) the morbidity rate.

Answer: C
13) A rate for a specific population subgroup (e.g. death rate for 40—50 year olds) is referred to as

A) mortality.
B) life expectancy.
C) the specific.
D) Years of Potential Life Lost [YPLL].

Answer: C
14) The average number of years of life remaining is known as the

A) death rate.
B) mortality rate.
C) life expectancy.
D) Disability-Adjusted Life Years [DALY].

Answer: C
15) Which rate is the measure of premature mortality?

A) Mortality rate
B) Infant mortality rate
C) Years of Potential Life Lost [YPLL]
D) Health-Related Quality of Life [HRQOL]

Answer: C
16) The primary difference between the health education/promotion profession and other helping professions in achieving the goals and objectives of the profession is

A) the establishment of written objectives by health education specialists.
B) that other professions do not have stated goals and objectives.
C) the use of the teaching-learning process by the health education/promotion profession.
D) that the cost of health education/promotion is much less than other helping professions.

Answer: C
17) The primary role of a health education specialist includes

A) delivering health education/promotion programs and evaluating health education/promotion programs.
B) developing health education/promotion programs for the people they serve and evaluating health education/promotion programs.
C) assessing the needs and diagnosing medical problems.
D) serving as a resource person, communicating with the public and marketing health education/promotion programs.

Answer: B
18) Which of the following steps is generally found in most planning models?

A) Learning activities.
B) Needs assessment
C) Policy commitment
D) Review of self-help materials

Answer: B
19) The primary role of a health education specialist includes all of the following EXCEPT

A) program development.
B) program evaluation.
C) program planning.
D) program redirection.

Answer: D
20) According to the best available estimates, behavioral patterns impact what portion of the population’s early death?

A) 70%
B) 40%
C) 30%
D) 15%

Answer: B
21) According to the best available estimates, social circumstances impact what portion of the population’s early death?

A) 70%
B) 40%.
C) 30%
D) 15%

Answer: D
22) The use of the DTP vaccine is an example of which level of prevention?

A) Primary prevention
B) Secondary prevention
C) Tertiary prevention
D) Community prevention

Answer: A
23) The use of condoms to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STI) is an example of which level of prevention?

A) Primary prevention
B) Secondary prevention
C) Tertiary prevention
D) Community prevention

Answer: A
24) Providing education to a diabetic on how to use his/her insulin is an example of which level of prevention?

A) Primary prevention.
B) Secondary prevention
C) Tertiary prevention
D) Community prevention

Answer: C
25) Encouraging individuals to take a daily dose of aspirin to reduce the chance of a heart attack is an example of which level of prevention?

A) Primary prevention
B) Secondary prevention
C) Tertiary prevention
D) Community prevention

Answer: B
26) The use of a sports physical examination as a requirement to participate in high school athletics is an example of which level of prevention?

A) Primary prevention
B) Secondary prevention
C) Tertiary prevention
D) Community prevention

Answer: A
27) Which one of the following disciplines and professions was not identified by the authors as contributing to the principles and concepts of health education/promotion?

A) Medicine
B) Education
C) Epidemiology
D) Anthropology

Answer: D
28) The Health Field Concept divides the health field into four elements. The four elements are

A) education, epidemiology, medicine, and sociology.
B) development, planning, implementation, and evaluation.
C) human biology, environment, lifestyle, and health care organization.
D) human biology, education, social work, and behavioral psychology.

Answer: C
29) The greatest importance of the Health Field Concept has been the

A) focus of health care reform legislation.
B) focus on health promotion and disease prevention.
C) institution of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
D) identification of health risks related to morbidity and mortality.

Answer: B
30) The focus of health promotion and disease prevention efforts should be directed toward

A) biological limitations.
B) the Chain of Infection.
C) modifiable risk factors.
D) non-modifiable risk factors.

Answer: C
31) What percentage of death could be prevented by controlling modifiable risk factors?

A) 10%
B) 20%
C) 20%
D) 40%

Answer: D
32) The interruption of the sequence of events to prevent an infection is descriptive of which of the following?

A) The Socio-ecological Approach
B) The Chain of Infection
C) Multicausation Design Model
D) Communicable Disease Model

Answer: B
33) The major components of this model include agent, host, and environment.

A) Epidemiology
B) The Chain of Infection
C) Multicausation Design Model
D) Communicable Disease Model

Answer: D
34) Which of the following disease models is most applicable to the prevention of chronic diseases?

A) The Chain of Infection.
B) The Health Field Concept
C) Multicausation Design Model
D) Communicable Disease Model

Answer: C
35) Epidemiology is

A) a method of applying primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention in a community setting.
B) concerned primarily with the empowerment of individuals in the of care their own health.
C) the study of the distribution and determinants of diseases in a specific population.
D) concerned only with life expectancy of humans.

Answer: C
36) The level of prevention that includes strategies designed to reduce the incidence of disease is called ________ prevention.

A) primary
B) secondary
C) tertiary
D) community

Answer: A
37) Screenings are used by which level of prevention?

A) Primary
B) Secondary
C) Tertiary
D) Community

Answer: B
38) Providing training or instructing patients on how to modify their diets and take their medications to prevent a second heart attack is an example of ________ prevention.

A) primary
B) secondary
C) tertiary
D) Community

Answer: C
39) Which of the following is the best descriptor of the socio-ecological approach?

A) Behaviors are influenced by interdependent domains.
B) Social circumstances are the prominent domain that influences health behaviors.
C) Genetics and the environment are the only variables of interest when developing interventions.
D) Family influences are the most important determinant of health.

Answer: A
40) The first national document that presented a comprehensive national agenda for prevention presented objectives in three main areas. The areas include

A) prevention services, health protection, and disease prevention.
B) increase quality of life, increase years of life, and the elimination of health disparities.
C) improve child mortality rates, decrease teen pregnancy rates, and reduce tobacco use.
D) improve the number of years of independent living, reduce mortality rates of cardiovascular diseases, and increase high school graduation rates.

Answer: A
41) Which of the following identify three levels used in the socio-ecological approach?

A) primary, secondary, and tertiary
B) public policy, medical care, and prevention
C) intrapersonal, interpersonal, and organizational
D) population control, professional development, and policy implementation

Answer: C
42) Having the ability to understand and respect values, attitudes, beliefs, and mores that differ across cultures is a description of a ________.

A) health education specialist
B) culturally competent person
C) professional
D) epidemiologist

Answer: B
43) The differences in health between populations is known as ________.

A) crude rate
B) Years of Potential Life Lost [YPLL]
C) Health-Related Quality of Life [HRQOL]
D) health disparity

Answer: D
44) The two primary causes of health disparities are lack of access to care and the lack of quality care.
Answer: TRUE
45) A crude rate is expressed in numbers per 100,000 population.
Answer: TRUE
46) Health education/promotion is considered to be an emerging profession because it does not meet all the characteristics of a profession.
Answer: TRUE
47) Health education/promotion may be considered on emerging profession because it is not clearly defined by itself or others.
Answer: TRUE
48) If health education/promotion is not considered a profession, then health educators are not considered professionals.
Answer: FALSE
49) The greatest potential for reducing the cost of health care in America is believed to be accomplished through the use of advanced technology.
Answer: FALSE
50) The first set of Health Objectives for the Nation (Healthy People) provided a blueprint for health promotion and disease prevention strategies.
Answer: TRUE
51) According to McGinnis, modifiable behaviors are the single most prominent domain of influence of health.
Answer: TRUE
52) According to the World Health Organization, health is merely an absence of disease.
Answer: FALSE
53) Years of Potential Life Lost [YPLL] is often described as the most comprehensive indicator of health and disease in a society.
Answer: FALSE
54) Years of Potential Life Lost [YPLL] is a measure of premature mortality.
Answer: TRUE
55) A rate used to express the impact of injury or disease is known as the Disability-Adjusted Life Years [DALY].
Answer: TRUE
56) Disability-Adjusted Life Years [DALY] is a measure developed by the World Health Organization and the World Bank.
Answer: TRUE
57) Disability-adjusted life expectancy [DALE] is based upon mortality rates.
Answer: FALSE
58) Health-adjusted life expectancy [HALE] can be calculated at any age.
Answer: TRUE
59) The ultimate goal of the health education/promotion profession is to prolong life.
Answer: TRUE
60) The terms of public health, health promotion, and wellness are all defined in terms of preventing diseases.
Answer: FALSE
61) The primary role of all health education specialists is to evaluate behavior change in their clients.
Answer: FALSE
62) Crude rates and adjusted rates are both expressed in terms of the total population.
Answer: TRUE
63) Epidemiology is the study of how states prevent disease outbreaks.
Answer: TRUE
64) The term pandemic refers to an outbreak of a disease over a wide geographical area.
Answer: TRUE
65) The term endemic refers to the regular occurrence of a disease in a given population.
Answer: TRUE
66) The Health Field Concept focuses only on the health care system.
Answer: FALSE
67) Keeping a child’s immunizations up-to-date would be an example of primary prevention.
Answer: TRUE
68) The use of antibiotics to treat a bacterial infection would be an example of secondary prevention.
Answer: FALSE
69) A person’s age is considered a modifiable risk factor for disease.
Answer: FALSE
70) The basic premise of the Chain of Infection Model is that modifying events that lead to infections can prevent infections.
Answer: TRUE
71) There are several different models that have proven useful in the prevention of disease.
Answer: TRUE
72) Health surveys can be used to measure health or health status.
Answer: TRUE
73) Epidemiology can be used in health education/promotion to identify the needs of a given population.
Answer: TRUE
74) Empowerment is the skill used to influence policy development.
Answer: FALSE
75) Empowerment refers to people gaining mastery over their lives.
Answer: TRUE
76) Advocacy is a skill needed by health education specialists.
Answer: TRUE
77) Explain why health education/promotion is considered an emerging profession. Include at least two characteristics of a professional in your rational.
78) Identify the four limitations of prevention and explain each.
79) Compare and contrast the Chain of Infection, Multicausation Disease Model, and the Communicable Disease Model.
80) Identify four professions/disciplines that support health education/promotion. Provide an example of how each profession/discipline is supportive of the health education profession.
81) Identify the three levels of prevention and provide an example for each level.
82) Describe the role advocacy plays in health education/promotion.
83) You have been asked to provide evidence of the health status of a given population (state or country); which rates and measurements would you use? Why?
84) Identify a health issue in which you have utilized advocacy skills and describe two activities you used in your advocacy effort.
References:

Haines, Andy, et al. “Climate change and human health: impacts, vulnerability and public health.” Public health 120.7 (2006): 585-596.
American Public Health Association, et al. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association., 1913.
American Academy of Pediatrics, et al. Caring for our children: National health and safety performance standards: Guidelines for out-of-home child care. Amer Academy of Pediatrics, 2002.

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