Modern academic libraries technology Paper

Published: 2021-09-12 11:30:10
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CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction The changing needs of people led to the development of a means to make tasks a lot easier and more convenient. This is technology. It is a tool that now plays an important role in people’s everyday life. Because of this technology every complicated task is now provided with an equal solution. Hence, the difficulties that people experience in doing tasks are minimized. It is not impossible that in the near future, these difficulties will be eliminated. When this happens, industrial evolution will surely take place.
An example of a technology that sparks the interest of people in the library community nowadays is the Radio Frequency Identification (REID). This is due to its applications that promise to increase efficiency, productivity and enhance user satisfaction. Apparently, globally emerging knowledge-based societies of the twenty first century will need information to sustain their growth and prosperity so with intellectual capital as investments, knowledge and information have become their wealth generators. In this scenario, people cannot deny the importance of libraries which are repositories of reference resources.
In most modern academic libraries where millions of books, periodicals, CDs, DVDs and other electronic reading materials are contained, it is a challenge for librarians to manage such type of huge collection. This is the reason why RFID is one of the most adopted technologies both by the academes and the industries. At present, there are several higher education institutions in the Philippines that are already using the RFID technology in their libraries. Some of these institutions are De La Salle University, University of Sto. Tomas, First Asia Institute of Technology and Humanities and Batangas State
University – Alangilan Campus. These universities are already experiencing the convenience in library management brought about by this RFID technology. After seeing how the system has helped the abovementioned institutions, the researchers thought of providing this technology to their alma mater. Batangas State University-JPLPC Campus still uses the traditional method for the inventory of library materials and equipment. The proponents believe that with the use of RFID technology, it will be more convenient for the library staff to deny possible theft or misuse of library belongings.
Also, the development of the RFID reader will be essential to enhance the security of the campus library and will lessen the effort needed by the library staff in managing library resources. Objectives of the Study The main objective of the study was to design and develop an RFID Reader for the Library Security of Batangas State University -JPLPC Campus. Specifically, this study aimed to: conslaer tne current state 0T tne Batangas state Unlversl c campus LIDrary ana make an innovation through development of library security feature. . Design a circuitry reader for library security. 3. Develop a Graphical User Interface (GU’) using Visual Basic. NET that will integrate RFID Reader, RFID tags, and Anti-Theft Detector. 4. Make the inventory of library properties easier, faster and systematic. Significance of the Study The RFID reader which was developed for Batangas State University-JPLPC Campus is believed to benefit the University Library personnel, College of Engineering and Computing Sciences, library users, other schools and libraries and future researchers.
To the library personnel, the project would be essential in the safekeeping and maintaining of books and other materials in the library. Also, it would help them save time and effort in making inventories regarding library materials. To the College of Engineering and Computing Sciences, this project would serve as another accomplishment. Likewise, it would be a helpful tool which could contribute in the betterment of learning since the prototype can be used to aid instruction. To the library users, the project could provide a faster and an easier means for searching and accessing the materials they need.
The time they usually spend in finding references would be minimized. Effectiveness in time usage would hen be improved thus; it would lead to increased productivity. To other schools and libraries, the project could serve as a motivating factor for them to uplift the power of Information Technology in providing better services to their students. They may develop similar tools or invent new systems. Finally, to future researchers, the project could aid them in the conduct of similar studies because this could serve as a valuable reference.
Scope and Limitations of the Study The current study requires knowledge about the RFID technology, software programming, and other factors governing the study, and mainly focuses on the esign and development of an RFID reader for the library security of Batangas State University-JPLPC Campus. It has four components: RFID reader, RFID tags, anti-theft detector and application software. The RFID reader is an MCU-based prototype it could read RFID tags that holds data which are transmitted to the reader when it is interrogated by the reader. The anti-theft detector identifying items that has tags and the buzzer will beep.
The application software serves as communication gateway among the various components that include Application Programming Interfaces hich are necessary for the integrated library software. Besides the features rest the limitations of the project developed. First, it does not include extra security features like security cameras and other similar devices which could be helpful in identifying cases wherein tags will be removed intentionally. Despite the capacity, this reader has its own limitation. It can read tags within three inches only.
Also, it does not include the monitoring of borrowed books which are already overdue. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter presents the related studies that the proponents gathered to support he outcomes of their project. It provides readers with a good grasp of different types of Automatic Identification Data Capture Technology, focusing specifically on RFID’s key components as well as its applications. Conceptual Literature This includes the concepts, principles and ideas by which the research study was built. The ideas included in this part served as basis and foundation of the researchers in conducting the study.
RFID Tags An RFID tag is also known as a transponder (derived from the terms transmitter and responder) which holds the data that is transmitted to the reader when the tag s interrogated by the reader. The most common tags today consist of an Integrated Circuit (‘C) with memory, essentially a microprocessor chip. Other tags have no chip and onboard Integrated Circuit. Tags without chips are more effective in applications where simpler range of functions is all that is required; although, they can help achieve more accuracy and better detection range, at potentially lower cost than their Integrated Circuit-based counterparts .
Tags contain microchips that store the unique identification (ID) of each object. The ID is a serial number stored in the RFID memory. The chip is made up of integrated circuit which is embedded in a silicon chip. RFID memory chip can be permanent or changeable depending on the read/ write characteristics. The read-only circuits are different from rewrite circuits. Read- only tags contain fixed data and cannot be changed without re-programming them electronically. On the other hand, re-write tags can be programmed through the reader at any time without any limit.
RFID tags can be made of different sizes and shapes depending on the application and the environment at which they will be used. A variety of materials are integrated on these tags. RFID tags can also be classified by their capabilities such as read and write data. The essential characteristics of RFID tags are their function to the RFID system. This function is based on their range, frequency, memory, security, type of data and other characteristics. Likewise, these are the core of RFID performance. The range of the RFID tags depends on their frequency.
This frequency determines the resistance to InterTerence ana otner perTormance attrlDutes . I ne use/selectlon o T RFID tag depends on its application. Furthermore, different frequencies are used on different RFID tags (Ahsan, et al. 2010). RFID Reader The RFID reader works as a central place for the RFID system. It reads tags data through the RFID antennas at a certain frequency. Basically, the reader is an electronic apparatus which produce and accept radio signals. The antennas contain an attached reader.
This reader translates the tags radio signals through the antenna depending on the tags’ capacity. The readers consist of a built-in anti- collision scheme. A single reader can operate on multiple frequencies. As a result, these readers are expected to collect or write data onto tag (in case) and pass through computer systems . The RFID reader sends a pulse of radio energy to the tag and listens for the tags response. The tag detects this energy and sends back a response that contains the tags serial number and possibly other information as well.
In simple RFID systems, the reader’s pulse of energy functions as an on-off switch. In more sophisticated systems, the reader’s RF signal can contain commands to the tag, instructions to read or write, memory that the tag contains, and even passwords. Historically, RFID readers were designed to read only a particular kind of tag. At present, the so-called multimode readers that can read many different kinds of tags re becoming increasingly popular. RFID readers continuously transmit radio energy and wait for any tags that enter their field of operation.
However, for some applications, this is unnecessary. Moreover, it could be undesirable to battery-powered devices that need to conserve energy. Thus, it is possible to confgure an RFID reader so that it can send radio pulse in response to an external event. For example, most electronic toll collection systems have the reader constantly powered up so that every passing car will be recorded. On the other hand, RFID scanners used in veterinarian’s offices are frequently quipped with triggers and are powered up only when the trigger is pulled.
Like the tags themselves, RFID readers come in many sizes. The largest readers might consist of a desktop personal computer with a special card and multiple antennas connected to the card through a shielded cable. Such a reader should have a network connection in order to report the tags that it reads from other computers. Conversely, the smallest readers are the size of a postage stamp and are designed to be embedded in mobile telephones. Nowadays a lot of RFID readers are sold with multiple brands such as Mifare, Hitachi, and Phillips.
Because of the major application it has worldwide, many systems require the simultaneous use of more than one operating frequency. Most systems available on the world market at present operate at one of the following frequencies or frequency ranges: below 135 kHz (125 kHz, 134. 2kHZ for example), 13. 56MHZ, UHF (860/960 MHZ), 2. 45GHZ and 5. 8GHz. The operating and controlling characteristics are different for each of these frequencies; therefore, each of them is more appropriate for certain types of application or certain countries than others . RFID Anti-theft Detector
The RFID anti-theft detector is the part of the library security system which uses the same RFID tags embedded in the library items. Each lane is able to track items of about 1 meter and triggers the alarm system when an item which has not been Dorrowea passed tnrougn tnem. I ne alarm wlll sound ana tne llgnts on tne gate will flash as a patron passes through carrying any library material which was not borrowed. The anti-theft detector which is interfaced with the reader and the software is used to detect RFID tags. It can detect RFID tags within one meter range without interference of the magnetic items.
Upon the detection of RFID tags, the alarm will sound on the door and will record the result to show whether the detected tag is available or not. Theft detection is an integral feature of the chip within the tag. It is a stand-alone technology which operates independently of the library database. In order to determine the values for the inductance and the capacitance needed, the following equation which is shown below was used: Frequency Formula F stands for the resonant frequency (in Hertz), L for inductance (in Henries) and C for capacitance (in Farads).
Since f = 125 KHz and the ceramic capacitors have 1 nF value, hen the settled inductance value isl . 62 mH. Antenna The idea of RFID was first developed in 1948. Recently, there have been many enhancements to this basic idea. Likewise, the concept has found applications in many areas. One suggestion is the replacement of the universal price code (UPC) barcode system. Practical considerations have driven a need for smaller tags with longer reading range. The reading range can be defined as “the maximum distance at which an RFID reader can detect the backscattered signal from the tag”.
This vital factor can be increased by designing antennas with higher gain which is directly elated to the antenna efficiency. Design engineers seek the smallest, most efficient antenna structures for their RFID tags. As mentioned above, one of the key features of RFID tag is antenna design. Traditionally, design engineers predict the performance of the antenna based on electromagnetic calculations which approximate real antenna performance. More recently, computers and accurate numerical modeling software applications have become available to explore antenna performance before construction.
The antenna is the most crucial element for an RFID tag because it is the power ource which is essential in achieving a large transceiver range. Other essential properties for an RFID antenna are size, robustness and manufacturing costs. The reading range is directly proportional to the wavelength used. Lower frequencies or longer wavelengths tend to increase the reading range. When it increases, larger antennas are needed. The design goals for an RFID antenna is to make it small, efficient and with long reading distance (Lewis, et al. , 2009).
The standard formula for the rectangular coil is determined by the following equation: Formula for the Coil Needed (Ross, et al. , 2012) L in the equation is in microHenries. The x and y variables are for the width/length of the coil (in cm); h is the height of the coil (in cm); b is the width across the conducting part of the coil (in cm); and N is the number of turns. In this project, the following values were used: x=3. 6cm; F 3. 8 m; h=l cm; and b=. 3 cm (estimated). PIC Microcontroller PIC microcontrollers are a family of specialized microcontroller chips produced by Microchip Technology in Chandler, Arizona.
The acronym PIC stands for “peripheral interface controller,” although this term is rarely used nowadays. A microcontroller is compact microcomputer designed to govern the operation of embedded systems in motor vehicles, robots, office machines, medical devices, mobile radios, vending machines, home appliances and other devices. A typical microcontroller includes a processor, memory, and peripherals. The PIC microcontrollers appeal to hobbyists and experimenters, especially in the fields of electronics and robotics.
Their key features include wide availability, low cost, ease of reprogramming with built-in EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory), an extensive collection of free application notes, abundant development tools and a great deal of nformation available on the Internet. Every PIC microcontroller has a set of registers that also functions as a RAM (random access memory). Special purpose control registers for on-chip hardware resources are also mapped into the data space. Every PIC has a stack that saves return addresses.
The stack was not software-accessible on the earlier versions of the PIC, but this limitation was removed in later devices . Buzzer A buzzer is an electric signaling device, such as a doorbell, that makes a buzzing sound. It may be mechanical, electromechanical, or piezoelectric. Typical uses of uzzers and beepers include alarm devices, timers and confirmation of user input through a mouse click or keystroke . Automatic Identification and Data Capture Automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) refers to the methods of automatically identifying objects, collecting data about them, and entering that data directly into computer systems (i. . without human involvement). Technologies typically considered as part of AIDC include bar codes, Radio Frequency Identification (REID), biometrics, magnetic stripes, Optical Character Recognition (OCR), smart cards, and voice recognition. Related Studies To further extend their knowledge regarding RFID technology, the proponents went through a rigorous review of previous studies which are related to their project. A discussion of these studies is provided in the succeeding paragraphs. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is now frequently used because of its capability to provide security.
The significant advantage of all types of systems which are based on this technology is their non-contact and covert nature. In fact, tags can be read through a variety of substances such as snow, fog, ice, paint, crusted grime nd other visually and environmentally challenging conditions where barcodes or other optical technologies would be useless. Hence, companies, industries and other institutions adopt this technology. Hongzhi, et al. (2011) worked toward the development of an auto-guard system which was based on RFID technology and mobile communication network.
This system was designed to reduce anti-theft rate and meet the intellectualized auto-guard demand of people. This is possible because it has the ability to control the car’s states remotely through programmed commands. This auto-guard system combined the frequency identification technology and the global mobile communication network. It used an STM8AF51AA car microcontroller built by Texas Instruments as the control core. This is the same with the IC MF RC522 ra010 reader 0T NXP semlconauctors company wnlcn can IOentlTy car owners quickly and realize the function of keyless entry and keyless startup.
Another project conducted in the past is the RFID-based banking system which has an RFID module reader that typically contains a transmitter and receiver module, a control unit and a coupling element (antenna). It used a regulated 5V, 500mA power supply and a three- terminal voltage 7805 regulator which is for voltage regulation. Moreover, it utilized a bridge-type full wave rectifier to rectify the AC output of secondary 230/12v step down transformer. For its RFID module, a separate +5v power supply is required Since it was interfaced with a microcontroller, this system could read the ID CODE in the card.
It could also compare this code with the ID CODE stored in the system. When these data match, the door gets opened in a clockwise direction to allow people to get in. After some time, the door automatically gets closed. Similarly, bank transactions were done using this technology. To be able to access the system, the user has to enter his/her user ID and password through the keypad. When the encoded information is correct, he/she can proceed with the transaction. But if the user ID and password remained incorrect after three attempts, the system would be blocked and would sound an alarm together with the three dancing LEDs.
In the project developed by RFID technology was integrated with a digital door locking system which authenticates and validates the user and opens the door automatically. It also kept a record of the user’s check-in and check-out times. With this system, the user is able to check in and out quickly, securely and conveniently by means of putting his/her tag in contact with the reader. This information from the tag is matched with the information which is already stored in the database. When the information from the tag is the same with that in the database, the door will be opened.
But if not, the door will remain closed. In this study, RFID has provided a secured solution for the access of space while keeping a record of the user. The system stores all the necessary information about the user. A new user is first registered to the system and the corresponding information is burned in the RFID tag. This RFID tag will then be accessible through the system. When a registered user comes to the entry point and puts his/her tag into the reader, the system checks whether he/she is a registered user or an imposter.
If the user is registered, then the tab information is matched with the user information stored in system. The door is opened after the successful authentication and is closed automatically after a specific time interval. The check-in information is also stored in the database with the orresponding date and time. A log is also generated by the system according to the check-in information. Finally, this check-in information is stored in a central server along with the basic information of the user.
Conceptual Framework To make this project achievable, the researchers crafted the design requirements first. These include significant considerations of the project tasks such as the development of the circuit layout and the schematic diagram, selection of materials and components and determination of their specifications. The development stage was done immediately after the project was approved. The circuitry was assembled and programming of the system was made. Furthermore, these stages were followed by the evaluation, safety and operation, system functionality test and troubleshooting phases.
Conceptual Paradigm 10 De aDle to successTully es taDllsn a ce rtaln project concept, tne proponents considered certain factors. They made a clear presentation of the processes to be undertaken so that the project would be carried out completely. To sum up these processes, they devised a conceptual paradigm which served as their guide in the conduct of the study. Table 1. Conceptual Paradigm Definition of Terms For better understanding of this study, the proponents defined the following terminologies conceptually and operationally.
Analog Signal. This is a physical quantity that conveys information about some physical phenomenon in a continuous nature.. The proponents used this term to know the fluctuation signal of the RF. BASCOM. It is an Integrated Development Environment that includes BASIC Compiler for the ATMEL AVR microcontroller family, Editor, AVR Simulator and In-System Programming support for a range of the third party hardware. The Proponents used this to program the microcontroller for the RFID reader. RFID anti-theft detector.
It is any device or method used to prevent or deter the unauthorized appropriation of items considered valuable. From the invention of the first lock and key to the introduction of RFID tags and biometric identification, anti-theft systems have evolved to match the introduction of new inventions to society and the resulting theft of them by others.. In this study, this refers to the component of the RFID reader which enables the detection of possible security threats for library properties. It is interfaced with the reader and serves as an alarm when there are theft cases. Radio Frequency (RF).
RF is the frequency of electromagnetic radiation in the range at which radio signals are transmitted, ranging from approximately 3 kilohertz to 300 gigahertz. Radio frequency (RF) devices are designed to operate at radio frequencies, defined as electromagnetic waves near and above 1 GHz (0. 3 m).. This is defined as any of the electromagnetic wave frequencies that lie in the range extending from below three kilohertz to about 300 gigahertz and that include the frequencies used for communications signals (as for radio and television broadcasting and cell-phone and satellite transmissions) or radar signals.
Radio Waves. Are waves emitted by an oscillating dipole and escape into electromagnetic space much like music from a piano that moves the air near it. Radio waves flow from the transmitter’s oscillating antenna to the receiver’s oscillating antenna but not always directly.. In electronics, this means radiation consisting of waves of energy associated with electric and magnetic fields resulting from the acceleration of an electric charge RFID tags. also called transponders, can be classified according to a number of characteristics. A distinction is usually made between passive and active tags..
These are the most mportant links in the RFID systems which have the ability to store information relating to the specific item to which they are attached and to rewrite this information without any requirement for contact or line of sight. In this study, RFID tags are those components which served as the tracker of all library items which are owned by the library. DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY All the procedures and research methods which were done by the proponents to create the RFID reader for Batangas State University-JPLPC Campus library are discussed in this chapter.
Likewise, all the requirements that clarify how this study as completed and what testing procedures were conducted are included here. Project Concept A library as an institution of knowledge and a source of information can be vulnerable to security attack such as theft. Because of the growing concern regarding security issues and management of resources in the library, the proponents became motivated to develop a system which can help resolve such problems. This led to the creation of an RFID reader which is applicable in keeping records of inventories and securing items and properties in the library.
It was made possible through RFID. RFID s a technology that is now readily available. It is currently used to track animate and inanimate objects throughout the world. But mostly, it is adopted for security purposes because it is convenient and easy to use. And despite the convenience it gives, it does not lessen its ability to detect possible threats. Figure 1 shows the basic project architecture of the RFID reader. It can be depicted from the illustration the operational phases of the project. First, the tags would be scanned by the reader.
After it has successfully identified the transmitted data or signal coming from the ntenna, these data would be recognized by the RFID-based system PC which acts as the middleware communication gateway among the system, tags and the reader. Figure 1 . Basic Project Architecture Preliminary Design Illustrated in the following block diagram are the major components that are required in order to develop the proposed RFID reader. These are the materials that are greatly needed in order to make the RFID reader function in a way that is suited to the proposed system.
Figure 2. RFID Reader Block Diagram In Hgure 2, It can De seen tnat tne components nave tnelr own Tunctlons as a part 0T the RFID reader. The voltage controller is connected to a power source to distribute the current in the circuitry. It supplies the necessary voltage for the circuit operation of the reader. Meanwhile, the clock generates the delay which is used by the microcontroller to decode the data coming from the transmission of radiowaves. Then the radiowaves are transmitted through the proximity reader via antenna.
After the signal was transmitted and analyzed, the microcontroller sends the data to the PC via PC controller. Finally, the buzzer acts as an indicator of the signal that was transmitted to the reader. Materials and Equipment Developing a project involves the necessary materials and correct equipment to be gathered. Materials should be readily available or in other cases, they have to be created. The following are the materials used in the project. RFID tags These components are used in tracking the different resources owned by the library.
Through these tags, the inventory process is made easier and more convenient. Also, security of library items is ensured. Anti-theft Detector This device is interfaced to the RFID reader to determine possible security threats. If there are cases of theft, this detector serves as an alarm. Through this, the library personnel are assured of the safekeeping of library items. They also know whether or not these items are checked out of the library premises. Personal Computer A computer is a very powerful and versatile device.
It can provide information with just a blink of an eye. In this project, the PC serves as an interface between the RFID reader and the anti-theft components. With an application software, the PC can send and receive data between these two distinct points. Testing Procedure This project underwent certain tests in order to determine whether the system is unctional and beneficial to the possible users. Through testing, the proponents were able to identify defects and errors and provide corresponding solutions. Hardware defects were resolved by means of repair or replacement.
Software errors, on the other hand, were corrected through debugging and reviewing of programming codes. Error-detection is critical on this stage. Any errors could cause the project to fail so careful observation and step-by-step procedures were considered. When all the errors and defects were cleared after several trials, all hardware and software components were interfaced correctly and properly. CHAPTER 4 FINAL PROJECT DESIGN, TESTING AND EVALUATION In this chapter, the results of the data analysis are presented.
These data were collected and then processed in response to the problems posed in Chapter 1. Two fundamental goals drove the collection of the data and the subsequent data analysis. These goals were established to develop a base of knowledge about the RFID library security system construction as it is perceived and utilized relative to other RFID systems and to determine if the current perception and utilization are consistent with the basic goals or principles of RFID technology. The findings presented here

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