It is an integral part of the requirements for the award of Certificates, Diplomas and Degrees in institutions of higher learning, e.g, Polytechnics, Universities, etc.
Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) exposes students to industry-based skills necessary for a smooth transition from the classroom to work environments. It accords students of tertiary institutions the opportunity of being familiarised and exposed to the needed experience in handling machinery and equipment which are more often than not, found in such an educational institutions.
My six months Industrial Training was observed at Network Operations Centre, Swift Networks Number 31B Saka Tinubu Street Victoria Island Lagos Nigeria.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF SIWES
? To provide students with relevant practical experience.
? To satisfy accreditation requirements set by the Nigerian Universities Commission (NUC)
? To help students access area of interest and suitability for their chosen profession.
? To enhance students contact for future employment
? To provide student an opportunity to see the real world of their discipline and consequently bridge the gap between the University work and actual practice.
? To provide access to equipment and other facilities that would not normally be available in the University workshop.
? To enlist and enhance industry involvement in university education.
? To familiarize students with typical environments in which they are likely to function professionally after graduation.
? To promote and encourage the acquisition of skills in industry and commerce, with a view of generating a pool of indigenous trained manpower sufficient to meet the needs of the economy.
? To solve, the problem of inadequate practical skills, preparatory for employment in industries by Nigerian graduates of tertiary institution.
2.0 DESCRIPTION OF THE ESTABLISHMENT OF ATTACHMENT
2.1 LOCATION AND BRIEF HISTORY OF ESTABLISHMENT
The Network Operation Centre (NOC) is located at Swift Networks, Lagos, Victoria Island, Number 31B Saka Tinubu Street.
Swift Networks Limited is a facilities-based telecommunications services provider. The company was founded in 2002 when it bided and obtained a Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) License from Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC) to provide multi-service broadband connectivity services to businesses and residential subscribers.
Since inception, Swift Networks has invested heavily in next generation networking technologies to build a multi-service network platform. Swift Networks holds an exclusive wireless spectrum license from the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC), allowing it to operate an end-to-end reliable, fibre-like connectivity services in the exclusively licensed and interference-free 3.5GHZ spectrum.
Swift Networks Limited has recently attracted foreign direct investment from The International Finance Corporation (IFC), European Investment Bank and Commonwealth Development Corporation under the Capital Alliance Private Equity II fund scheme managed by Capital Alliance Nigeria. Accordingly, Swift Networks has the requisite financial and organizational resources to become the leading broadband connectivity Services provider in Nigeria.
2.2 VISIONS AND OBJECTIVES OF ESTABLISHMENT
To create full-spectrum telecommunication institution of choice, differentiated by superior quality of service, consistently creating value for all stakeholders through innovative, leading-edge products, delivered by a high quality workforce, utilizing the best in modern technology.
To make available a Broadband Internet access that is fast, secure and reliable
To provide Virtual Private Networking Services
Handling Web and email hosting
To provide a Collocation services
Video conferencing and surveillance solutions
To make available Other value-added services.
1. Quick Return on Investment & Improved Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) as our subscribers can leverage on our multi-service network to acquire integrated Data services, Internet access, public switched Voice telephony, Video and surveillance services using the same CPE.
2. Ease of Installation: Installations are easy and fast because of the non-line-of-site capability of the Nextnet Wireless equipment and the option of using an indoor CPE. (Masts are not required).
3. Scalability: Our subscribers can start small and grow their demand rapidly without any requirement for hardware upgrade. More services can be requested (voice, video or data) via the same modem already installed.
Network are two or more device connected to each other with a physical medium such as wires or radio signals
Component involve in connecting computer and application across small and large distance.
Each computer on the network has access to the files and peripheral device (such as printers or modems) on all the other computers on the network.
3.1 NETWORK TOPOLOGY
Common topology found in networking includes mesh topology star topology, bus topology, ring topology, and others.
Network topology refers to the layout of the transmission medium and devices on a network. Topologies use either a point to point or multipoint connection scheme.
A connection scheme indicates how many devices are connected to a transmission media segment or an individual cable.
An example of point-to-point connection scheme is a modem/ printer connected to computer, direct cable connection between two computers.
An example of a multi point connection scheme is a star or bus topology network.
This is a local area network topology where all the nodes are connected individually to a central connecting device called a hub or switch. Signals travel from the nodes to the hub which then sends signals to other nodes on the network. A star topology network is scale able i.e. it can be design and redesign easily.
A LAN topology where each node is connected to a single main bus cable, is transmits data to all the nodes on the network. The bus is actually a series of cable segments running from one node to the other. Break or faulty piece of cable anywhere on the segment prevents all the computers on the segment from being able to communicate.
This is a network topology where every node on the network has a separate wire connecting it to every other node on the network. It provides each device with a point-to-point connection to every other device in the network. This type of network has a high fault tolerance because failure of one node does not affect data transmission between other nodes.
At NOC the topology adopted is the mesh topology.
3.2 TRANSMISSION MEDIA
These are media, which require the use of wires, lines, and cables to transmit communication signals. During my industrial training at NOC, I encountered majorly three different types of wired network media namely:
A coaxial cable is an alternative for protecting data from noise. Coaxial cables do not produce external electric and magnetic fields and are not affected by them. This makes them ideally suited, although more expensive, for transmitting signals.
Twisted pair cable
In a twisted pair there are eight copper wire that are coated with different colours; the colours are mix/orange, orange, mix/blue, blue, mix/green, green, mix/brown and brown.
These colours are very important when terminating cables. The two most common ways of terminating Ethernet cables are:
(i) Straight-through method
(ii) cross-over method
In straight-through method, in any way you put in your cable, the colour adopted at both ends must be the same.
In a cross-over method all you need to do is to terminate one end with a straight rule method and the other end would be that pin 1 goes to pin 3 and vice-versa, the pin 2 then goes to pin 6 and also vice-versa.
I got to know that a cross-over cable is used to connect two similar devices like a PC to a PC while a straight through cable is used to connect different devices e.g. a PC to a router.
Fibre optic cable
At NOC the backbone upon which the network is built is fibre optic.
It is made of glass fibres instead of wire; it consists of a centre glass core surrounded by several layers of protective material. The outer insulating jacket is made of Teflon or PVC. The fibre optic cables transmit light rather than electronic signals, thereby eliminating the problem of electrical interference.
Optical fibres come in two types:
Single-mode fibres have small cores while
Multi-mode fibres have larger cores. Used for short-distance communication links.
To fully explore the wireless added dimension, Communication system designers have sought to use wireless media to reduce infrastructure cost and complexity, when compared to wired communication systems. There is no need to construct miles of telephone line poles or cable trenches.
During my stay at NOC I was able to interact with the following devices:
3.3 NETWORK EQUIPMENT
Some network equipment:
Is a device that sends and receive packets from one network to the other.
A router is a device that forwards data packets between computer networks, creating an overlay internetwork. A router is connected to two or more data lines from different networks. When a data packet comes in one of the lines, the router reads the address information in the packet to determine its ultimate destination. Then, using information in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey.
A network switch is a computer networking device that connects network segments or network devices. It serves mainly for extension.
Its a device that aid and enhances the signal strength and quality. Antennas are not used alone; it is always attached to something mostly to an antennas. An antenna is of two types in terms of direction Directional and Omni-directional. Directional beams signal in one direction while Omni- directional beams signals in all direction. Antennas are better propagated horizontally.
Unidirectional antenna parabolic grid antenna
Twisted pair Cable
Twisted pair is the ordinary copper wire that connects home and many business computers to the telephone company. To reduce crosstalk or electromagnetic induction between pairs of wires, two insulated copper wires are twisted around each other. Each connection on twisted pair requires both wires. Since some telephone sets or desktop locations require multiple connections, twisted pair is sometimes installed in two or more pairs, all within a single cable.
Rj-45 plug is the common name for an 8P8C modular connector using 8 conductors which pin down wires in a twisted pair cable.
Is a tool used to terminate category cables such as CAT1-CAT6 using an RJ-45 connector; it can also be used to cut cable to a desired length.
LAN cable tester
This is used to test if a category cable has been well terminated, or develop a fault.
3.4 IP ADDRESSING
An IP address is a unique identifier that is assigned to a host on a network. It is also a unique identifier for a host or a node on a network. We have IPv4 and IPv6. The most used being IPv4 (with 32bits).
Functions of IP Addressing
For location of a device on the network
It is assigned to allow hosts on one network to communicate to hosts on another network
IPv4 address is 32 bits divided in to four octets or bytes using dot .
Classes of IPv4 Addresses
IPv4 which is 32bits has class ranges from class A-E
This Class address can only be between 0 and 127. All 0s reserved for default route and 127 is reserved for trouble shooting loop back, therefore in reality Class A valid address range that can be assigned to host on a network is 10-126
Class B address can only be between 172 191
Class address can only be between 192 223
Class A-C is used for uncast.
Class D and E
Class D (224-239) used for multicasting
Class E (240-255) for research purposes
This is the address used to send data to all hosts on a broadcast domain.
When all the host bits are on (1) this is a broadcast address for all hosts
255 are reserved for sending broadcast message.
The basic function of sub-netting is to define the class boundary.
To create subnets you take bits from the host portion of the IP address and reserve them to define the subnet address.
The subnet mask for class A ranges from 255.0.0.0
The subnet mask for class B ranges from 255.255.0.0
The subnet mask for class C ranges from 255.255.255.0
The first octet determines the class.
The 255 above represent the network portion and the zeros represent the host portion.
Private IP address ranges
The ranges and the amount of usable IP’s are as follows:
10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255
Addresses: 1, 048, 5
3.5 TROUBLESHOOTING SKILLS
Troubleshooting is the process of finding problems and solving them.
Should a client unable to browse or unable to make calls via the IP phone, the check begins with the cable being used if client is connected via LAN cable, this is done using the LAN-cable tester, check the face plates to know if it is working, check the patched panel and switches on the distribution rack where they are kept. Ping the systems Ethernet port, ping the server etc.
5.0 SUMMARY OF ATTACHMENT ACTIVITIES
The gains of this exercise are immense; that it was worth the while is grossly an understatement. Being accorded another opportunity in life to be exposed to the rudiments of work places outside the class room teaching is an experience of a life time.
Furthermore, the exposure to practical tools, software and hardware had engendered better understanding of lessons thought in the class room and charted a course for career development in networking.
5.1 RECOMMENDATIONS & SUGGESTION FOR IMPROVEMENT OF THE SCHEME
I put forward the following suggestions and recommendations for future improvement of the scheme;
Organizing workshops, seminars and symposium for students in various faculties in other to keep the student abreast of new technologies and innovations.
Posting of students for SIWES should be done by the scheme to ensure conformity with course of study.
A mass enlightenment campaign should be carried out, to enable industries and establishments know the importance of SIWES to the future of the student and the society at large.
The scheme should also try to enforce the act guiding the establishment of the scheme, to serve as deterrent to those establishments who reject student for IT.
School Curriculum should be organized in such a way that the SIWES exercise be carried out at a stretch of six months and not the intermittent arrangement of three months twice.
The Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) plays a significant role in human resource development, it helps students develop new skills and enlightens them of what the present society holds for them after graduation and helps them adapt accordingly.