Unlike the previous therapies mentioned Transcendental Meditation (TM) is a therapy that is typical done as a complementary therapy alongside one of the gold standard therapies or pharmaceutical therapy (Barnes, Monto, Williams, & Rigg, 2016). Transcendental Meditation is a self-guided procedure therapy that is practiced 20 mins twice daily, in which the client/patient is seated comfortably, with closed eyes, during which time thinking is allowed to slow down and physiological rest is then gained, (Barnes, Monto, Williams, & Rigg, 2016). The health benefits of TM therapy include lowered blood pressure, reduction of medications, decreased medicine usage or medicine stabilization, (Barnes, Monto, Williams, & Rigg, 2016). NEED 2419
Other types of therapies
Currently, one of the most controversial therapies within the US is cannabis treatment therapy. 33 out of 50 states allow the usage of medical cannabis as a treatment for PTSD, (Berke & Gould, 2018). In order for a person to use cannabis as a treatment for PTSD they must have a prescription and obtain the cannabis from a licensed medical cannabis dispensary (Bonn-Miller, Babson, & Vandrey, 2014). The symptoms of PTSD that cannabis treatments have be sought out for are anxiety, chronic pain, stress, insomnia and depression, (Bonn-Miller, Babson, & Vandrey, 2014). NEED 2337
Many times, the issue with treating PTSD patients/clients are their limited ability to express their symptoms verbally, not because they cannot but because they are not sure how to verbalize what they have gone through, (Kaimal, Walker, Herres, French, & DeGraba, 2018). Often this is where patients/clients need to express themselves in other ways of communication, (Kaimal, Walker, Herres, French, & DeGraba, 2018). Art therapy is often the best way for some patients/clients to express themselves (Kaimal, Walker, Herres, French, & DeGraba, 2018). Mask-making art therapy has shown to be a very beneficial form of communication, especially in those with combat-related trauma, (Kaimal, Walker, Herres, French, & DeGraba, 2018). Imagery can be an effective and creative way in which to help patients develop skills to cope with fearful situations while helping to recreate the connectiveness of mind and body, (Kaimal, Walker, Herres, French, & DeGraba, 2018). When art therapy is used as a complementary therapy in connection with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) it has been shown to reduce depression, through giving expression to both the negative and positive emotions associated with pain and trauma, (Kaimal, Walker, Herres, French, & DeGraba, 2018). While other service members may receive art therapy in relationship with neurological, psychiatric or psychological therapies, (Kaimal, Walker, Herres, French, & DeGraba, 2018). Additionally, art therapy can be a forum of safe self-expression, for service members to work on their internal conflicts both pre and post combat, (Kaimal, Walker, Herres, French, & DeGraba, 2018). Furthermore, when patients/clients associated red and blue in their mask-making those showed higher symptoms of both PTSD and depression, whereas those that had broken or missing pieces with military symbols showed a higher likelihood of anxiety, but those that used military visual aids scores lower with both anxiety and depression symbols, (Kaimal, Walker, Herres, French, & DeGraba, 2018). The benefits of art therapy are that it can promote self-exploration, through self-expression, symbolic thinking as well as creativity and sensory stimulation, (Kaimal, Walker, Herres, French, & DeGraba, 2018). Need 2075
In recent years more, federal government agencies are exploring the use of canine-assisted therapy (CAT) for the treatment of PTSD symptoms, (Owen, Finton, Gibbons, & DeLeon, 2016). Usually canines are used for service professions, they are highly trainable and have keen senses, most commonly they are used as trained explosive or guard dogs, (Owen, Finton, Gibbons, & DeLeon, 2016). Canines have the unique ability to smell various chemical changes in the body, (Owen, Finton, Gibbons, & DeLeon, 2016). With recent deployments emotional supportive canines who are trained, obedient, quiet, focused working dogs are being deployed to help service members to deal with combat, home front related stresses and loneliness, (Owen, Finton, Gibbons, & DeLeon, 2016). During canine assisted therapy the canine assists the patient/client to develop resilience, positive coping skills while increasing communication and social interaction, along with building emotional regulation and improve overall well-being, (Owen, Finton, Gibbons, & DeLeon, 2016). While in treatment and post treatment wounded warriors saw the reduction of distress, improvement in function, more social interaction and relaxation, increased patience, greater control over impulses, improved sleep, decreased emotional numbness, depression an reduction in the use of pain medicines, while increasing a sense of belonging, and calmness, (Owen, Finton, Gibbons, & DeLeon, 2016). The canines allowed for their human companions to regain interest in activities from recreation to daily living while gaining confidence through developing relationships and social interaction, (Owen, Finton, Gibbons, & DeLeon, 2016) . NEED 1879
As noted, earlier music therapy can be shown as early as biblical times. However, during both World War, I and World War II community musician went into Veterans hospitals around the country to play for those suffering from both the physical and emotional trauma of wars, (“History of Music Therapy | History of Music Therapy | American Music Therapy Association (AMTA),” 2018). Music has played and continues to play an important part within society, it helps reduce anxiety and fear while uniting people thus giving them a sense of identity and belonging, (Landis-Shack, Heinz, & Bonn-Miller, 2017). During 1950s in the US music therapy was further introduces in community hospitals, youth centers, schools and in prisons to help those who experience trauma, (Landis-Shack, Heinz, & Bonn-Miller, 2017). Music therapy needs to be provided by a licensed music therapist, who creates a planned treatment which can include musical improvisation, listening exercises, singing, music making, playing an instrument, and emotional insight to music, (Landis-Shack, Heinz, & Bonn-Miller, 2017). Music therapists are then able to tailor therapy based on the individual needs of the client/patient, music can also be a greater source of encouragement and guidance which may offer easier accessibility and less formality then traditional therapies, (Landis-Shack, Heinz, & Bonn-Miller, 2017). Most music therapy consists of 10 week of hourly sessions, (Landis-Shack, Heinz, & Bonn-Miller, 2017). The benefits of music therapy include improved feelings of self-worth and isolation, reduced PTSD symptoms, improved sleep quality and reduced anxiety. which fosters connectivity, positive feelings, reduces stress hormones, (Landis-Shack, Heinz, & Bonn-Miller, 2017). Furthermore, music therapy may improve function and foster resilience in those that have limb lose as well as PTSD which can offer better holistic care, (Landis-Shack, Heinz, & Bonn-Miller, 2017). NEED 1642
Within the US alone 55.5% of people are using smartphones, they carry them all day, everyday and they are rarely shut off, (Kuhn et al., 2014). This means that people are always looking for smartphone software (APPS) to meet their daily needs (Kuhn et al., 2014). This led to one of the newest types of therapies called PTSD COACH which is a smartphone app that helps by supporting many cognitive behavior techniques (Kuhn et al., 2014). PTSD COACH provides stress inoculation training through providing an individual with educational content and instructions on coping skills, (Kuhn et al., 2014). Some of the tools utilized through this app are an expanding/contracting dot to help it breathing activities, relaxation exercises, calming self-talk or self-coaching, anger management tools and social support through social media links, (Kuhn et al., 2014). PTSD Coach has been downloaded over 130,000 times globally, (Kuhn et al., 2014). Those that used the PTSD Coach app stated in a survey that it helped to manage acute distress and PTSD symptoms, they also used it nightly to combat sleeping problems associated with PTSD, (Kuhn et al., 2014). Additionally, PTSD COACH helped to improve the knowledge about PTSD and explain PTSD to friends/family, (Kuhn et al., 2014). NEED 1465
Often PTSD goes unreported, misdiagnoses and undertreated because of the stigma associated with it, (Fisher, 2014). According to statics those 5-20% of service members that are coming home from recent deployments are affected with PTSD, (Fisher, 2014). Additionally, 31% of service members who returned from Vietnam experience PTSD, (Fisher, 2014). However, many service members see seeking behavior health care is stigmatized because they see it has having negative impacts on their career advancement, this is often why treatment fails (Barnes, Monto, Williams, & Rigg, 2016). There is a stigma paradox which is a double-edged sword, because those that seek out treatment are criticized for seeking out treatment and are often labeled for doing so, (Fisher, 2014). However, when something happens to those that get turned away from or choose to not seek out treatment they are also labeled and criticized. This shows that even with diagnosis, and stigma there is also conflicting messages, (Fisher, 2014).
Caregiver education and care
When we look at education, we must also look at how to education caregivers of those with PTSD. Spouses of service members exhibit symptoms of traumatization which can include psychiatric and higher levels of stress along with emotional distress, (Church & Brooks, 2014). Additionally, spouses and children of those with PTSD are more likely to be victims of domestic violence, child abuse and violent behavior, (Church & Brooks, 2014). Some of the changes that caregivers may notice are Veterans may become uncomfortable in large crowds or unfamiliar places, this could make you feel more social isolated, and losing supportive networks for feeling as if you must compensate for the Veteran due social times, (US Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration, 2017). Furthermore, caregivers often are faced with added stressor in addition to caring for person with PTSD these can include financial strain, managing the PTSD persons symptoms, dealing with crises, the loss of friends and /or intimacy, due to PTSD the caregiver may be the only one to care of these stressors, which can result in caregiver burden (Tull, 2018). Moreover, as PTSD symptoms worsened so did the amount of caregiver burden, which is also linked to somatic disease, clinical depression, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, (Tull, 2018). It is important for the caregivers to understand that PTSD is a chronic condition, it is a marathon, not a sprint, so therefore it is important for the caregivers to pace themselves and take time to rest, (Tull, 2018). Several types to help combat and cope with caregiver burden include taking time out for yourself, maintaining healthy eating and sleeping habits, avoiding isolation, and sharing your experiences as a caregiver with others, (“Veterans Affairs? Caregiver Benefits & National Support Line,” n.d.). Additionally, depending on the severity of veterans disabilities caregivers may receive comprehensive assistance such as monthly stipend, mental health services, paid travel expenses for care while accompanying veterans, and access to health care insurance if not already provided, (“Veterans Affairs? Caregiver Benefits & National Support Line,” n.d.). NEED 1029
The need to understand policy changes is also a part of education. The estimated total cost of treating PTSD is $6 billion dollars for service members alone, this does not include caregiver cost, (Kaimal, Walker, Herres, French, & DeGraba, 2018). Those that are involved in making policy changes relating to PTSD, the diagnosis and disability compensation often view it as being over diagnosed by the institutional culture of healthcare professionals, (Fisher, 2014). These same policy makers see PTSD as very costly along with having a negative impact on military performance and manpower, (Fisher, 2014). While other scholars note that access to and quality of care within the VA and DOD healthcare systems, along with inadequate funding, delays in funding, lack of developing and slow growth about getting new programs off the ground and difficulty finding health care professionals lead to people not seeking treatment (Lake, 2015). Theses scholars note that there needs to be an inclusive education between the general public, the VA and the DOD (which needs to create a joint task force) to address the inadequacies and lack of government funding for PTSD which potentially could reduce productivity losses in billions of dollars annually and greater increase treatment, (Lake, 2015).
Knowledge of trauma
Sharing of educational information about PTSD was not always encourages, this has led to not enough public knowledge and potentially stigmatization or labeling those with PTSD in the eyes of the public (Harik, Matteo, Hermann, & Hamblen, 2016). Those that are educated about PTSD potential have a more upbeat outlook at PTSD treatments and are more willing to see out treatment (Harik, Matteo, Hermann, & Hamblen, 2016). Additionally, those that are seeing treatment can make better decisions regarding their personal care (Harik, Matteo, Hermann, & Hamblen, 2016). June is designated as PTSD Awareness month (HELP RAISE PTSD AWARENESS, 2018). Furthermore, 72% of people could identify and recognize traumatic events, however only 62% of those could recognize true symptoms of PTSD and roughly 38% to 69% of people previously treated for PTSD could recognize types of PTSD treatments/therapies, (Harik, Matteo, Hermann, & Hamblen, 2016). However, those that had negative experience with treatments or with PSTD medications felt that they were ineffective, (Harik, Matteo, Hermann, & Hamblen, 2016). Those that have never been treated for PTSD had lower percentages of knowledge about first line/ gold standard treatment options and also had false knowledge about potential medications for PTSD, (Harik, Matteo, Hermann, & Hamblen, 2016). NEED 681