Waste Wate treatment_Approaches & technologies adopted in Paper

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Wastewater Treatment:
Approaches and Technologies Adopted in Egypt Abstract
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[Course title]9410077300
Wastewater Treatment:
Approaches and Technologies Adopted in Egypt Abstract
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[Course title]
The Arab republic of Egypt is a North African country covering a land mass of about 995,450km2 and 6,000km2 of water, making a total of 1,001,450 km2 which placed it at number 30th country in the world in terms of size. The country is located between Longitude 24.7 to 36.9 and Latitude 21.72 and 31.67 sharing borders with Libya, Sudan, Israel and Palestine. The country’s population has been on the rapid increase for the past 50 years, growing from just about 19 million people in 1947 to over 85 million and is estimated to grow to about 100 million by 2025. With over 56% of the population located in rural, only over 4% of the land mass is occupied and mostly along the Nile valley and Delta (Abdel-Lateef, Hall, Farrag & Farrag, 2011). Water is a signficant resource making river Nile one of the most valuable resources in the country.
Water resources in Egypt are limited to the following;
Nile River
Ground water in the desert and Sinai and
Dealination of sea water.
Each resource is accompanied by linitations and they are in one or more of these forms; quantity, quality, time, use cost or space.
Rainfall in Egypt unlike other part of the world is very scarce with an average of 12 mm a year (Abdel-Shafy, El-Saharty, Regels-berger & Platzer, 2010). Rain fall in desert areas is in form of scattered showers and only in winter seasons. The rainwater is concentrated in the northern part of the country and does not exceed 1.8 billion M3 (BCM) a year. Annual rain that goes to agricultural use is just about 1 BCM a year (Addel-Shafy et al. 2010).
Source: (Abdel-Kader and Abdel-Rassoul, 2010).
The persistent population growth in most developing countries of world, Egypt been one, has resulted in a rapid increase in urbanization and these two are the major generators of both industrial and domestic wastewater (Abdel-Kader and Abdel-Rassoul, 2010). This has contributed drastically to the general quality and availability of drinkable water due to pollution.
As at 2012, the Egyptian total demand for agricultural requirement was in excess of 80% of the total demand for water. The development and sustainability of Egyptian economy is strongly dependent on its ability to conserve and manage its water resources (MWRI, 2017). The annual rainfall is significantly low.
Source: (Addel-Shafy et al. 2010)
The sanitation service conditions in Egypt is presently below the water supply services. The capacity of water treatment in the country is about 12 million m3/day and the collection network/pipelines are low even though on the increase; from 28,000 km in 2005 to 34,000km in 2010. This is been carried out by over 323 wastewater treatment plants presently in the country (Abdel-Kader and Abdel-Rassoul, 2010).
The lack of much needed attention in rural sanitation has resulted in serious water pollution and health condition as raw domestic wastewater is discharged directly into water ways (Abdel-Shafy & Mohamed-Mansour, 2013). The government in collaboration with some foreign bodies has taken some measures to tackle these issues but as the population increases with proportionate increase in urbanization, this issue is on the rise.
Wastewater Management/Treatment
There is a significant lack of proper management and or treatment of wastewater in most of the countries in African. Untreated or poorly treated effluent is one of the most common pollutant of urban rivers and ground water sources in most African cities (Omosa, Wang, Chewng, and Li, 2012).
Wastewater refers to any water that is negatively affected in its quality due to human activities. This is inclusive of domestic, industrial or agricultural liquid waste. This includes some contaminants which can be harmful or lead to degradation in the quality of water. These contaminants can be in form of soap, detergents, oil and other human activities that involve water (Idris-Nda, Aliyu, and Dalil, 2013). Wastewater can be in two forms; the type that comes from human waste (feaces, urine or other body fluids), is referred to as blackwater, this also include water from lavatories, septic tanks, washing water, soak away etc. while wastewater from urban rainfall runoff from roads, sidewalks and roofs are referred to as greywater. Water can be contaminated with different components most of which include; synthetic chemical, nutrients, pathogens, organic matter etc. These can either occur as a particulate matter or in a solution. Wastewater management if not properly done, can become a major source of pollution which could be a hazard both for the environment and humans (Mahmood and Maqbool, 2006).
Technologies employ in wastewater management.
Wastewater treatment is aimed at removing biodegradable organic compounds, floatable and suspended materials, nutrient and pathogens (Abdel-Shafy & Mohamed-Mansour, 2013).
Biological Treatment Technologies
The biological treatment is a more natural wastewater treatment process than others. Microorganisms are made to feed on complex materials found in wastewater turning them into simpler substances, making the water ready for further treatment. The aim here is to minimize the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) level. This process also reduce cost since there is low amount of power required for the process to be carried out but the whole process is done by the hard-working microorganisms (Sunday, 2013).
2.1.2 Chemical Treatment Technologies.
The mechanical process uses a combination of biological, physical and chemical processes for wastewater treatment. The process uses series of tanks, blowers, pumps, grinders, screens etc. the process is usually natural but in an artificial environment and also makes use of some chemical components. Wastewater is controlled into the system by various instruments in sequence and batches. Sequencing batch reactors (SBR), Oxidation ditches and extended aeration systems all form variation process of the activated-sludge, that suspends growth system. The trickling filter solid process in contrast is an attached-growth. This approach is more effective where land is at premium (Sunday, 2013).
Electrochemical Oxidation (EO)
Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Process (EAOPs) is an amalgam of different other processes and uses electrochemical techniques to generate strong oxidants. This process is based on the electronic generation of oxidant. The EO has become very attractive because of its ability to completely mineralized highly recalcitrant organic pollutants and even carboxylic acids. This also presents many advantages over other approaches. This is majorly used in cosmetic and other chemical industries (Bello, L. A, Omoboye, A. J, Abiola, T. O, 2019).
Approaches to wastewater management in Egypt.
The demand for domestic water as a result of persistent increase in population, industrial growth and improvement in the standard of living has increased the amount of wastewater causing pollution to the environment and diseases.
The Egyptian government has adopted strategies for water management by Integrating Water Resources Management (IWRM) including managing demand. This however remains highly centralized, and without serious involvement of users and it is sectorial. Four main ministries handles the management of water and sanitation; the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation (MWRI) saddled with the responsibility of managing and developing resources (ground and surface quantity irrigation), the Ministry of State for Environment Affairs (MSEA) is responsible for protecting environmental and water resources, the Ministry of Health and Pollution (MOHP) in charge of general public health, the Ministry of Water and Wastewater Utilities (MWWU) in charge of sanitation and drinking water in the country (SWIM, 2013). There are also agencies that handle many other areas of environmental sanitation. These ministries and agencies form a well-developed institutional and regulatory framework although some areas such as rural sanitation, treatment of industrial wastewater and reuse of treated wastewater (TWW) remain deficient.
The country does not really have any laws governing water usage at the moment but plans are in place to find a suitable wastewater and environmental management policies in years to come. E.g the National Water Resources Plan 2017 (NWRP). The country has adopted the following approaches to wastewater management; Wastewater Reuse (WR), Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) Management that treat wastewater, Industrial Wastewater Management (IWM) (SWIM, 2013).
Wastewater Reuse
Reuse of treated wastewater is presented as a necessity by the government and is considered part of unconventional resource considering forecasted balance between demand and supply of water. Egypt currently produces an estimated 5.5-6.5 BCM of sewage water per year. Out of that quantity, just about 2.97 BCM is treated yearly and just about 0.7BCM is used for agricultural purposes. Only about 40% of the total wastewater undergoes secondary treatment making it unhealthy for human consumption even for agricultural use (SWIM, 2013). Wastewater treatment can be for the purpose of irrigation and or human use. The use of treated wastewater has become an adopted strategy to increase water supply in Egypt to enable the government meet up with the increasing demand (Abdel-Shafy & Mohamed-Mansour, 2013).
Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) Sludge Management
The existing WWTPs in the country, aside from not been enough in terms of quantity, they are also operating below the required standard. Sludge produced by WWTP is a significant problem. Hence a decree guiding the reuse of sewage sludge with restrictive standards. These is based on the fact that there could still be a presence of some toxic elements relating to industrial effluents in the wastewater. Overall all the government is doing its part to ensure that less of the wastewaters generated nationwide are treated and not just introduced into the environment to cause pollution and diseases.
Rural Sanitation
In the decade, the government in conjunction with foreign institutions have made significant efforts to collect and treat the waste in urban areas even though the operations of WWTP is not that efficient owing to lack of adequate maintenance and rehabilitation. On the other hand, the rural communities are lagging behind; with just about 40% of total villages in Egypt having secondary wastewater treatment (SWIM, 2013). All the related Ministries (MWRI, MSEA, MOHP) emphasizes the pollution risk from wastewater in rural areas and relative impact on water bodies in the country. The sector contains about 56% of the country’s total population but no clear institutional framework which defines who is charge of what for the sector. There is a significant gap as regards waste management between urban and rural sectors. This situation improved over the years and is not expected to stop in the next couple of years (Abdel-Kader and Abdel-Rassoul, 2010). Recent studies proved that it will be impossible to make available sewerage facilities in all the rural areas in the nearest future. So therefore, a shift from the current centralized to a decentralized wastewater treatment will be a better approach (Abdel-Shafy and Aly, 2007; MED WWR WG, 2007).
Industrial Wastewater management
Industrial activities are been on the increase as the world population increase and these industries generate if not the highest, among the highest amount of one wastewater found around. The country has been working with outside partners especially the European Union (EU) to ensure that these wastewaters are treated preventing or at least reducing the amount of pollution exposed to the environment.
Industrial wastewater, whether discharged to the sewers collection network or to the environment posed a risk environmental pollution and a WWTPs. These plants are generally unable to effectively process some pollutants and may take this as a disturbance to their functionality.
3.0 Recommendations and Conclusion
Wastewater can be a major cause of pollution to the environment if not properly managed and at the same time, a major source of water if properly managed and control especially for arid areas where water is considered to be a very valuable resource.
3.1 Recommendations.
With the country’s population on the constant rise and a correspondent increase in urbanization, the country faces a potential threat of serious water and food shortage in the near future.
Orientation towards the concept of integrated strategic planning in the water sector and sanitation among all concerned ministries and sectors (Housing, Irrigation, Agriculture, Environment, Health… etc.).The government need to pay more attention and pull more of her finances towards maintaining a safe environment with respect to pollution. There should be a Mistry of Rural Development and Sanitation, charged with the sole responsibility of ensuring the pollution in rural areas is reduced to the minimum acceptable level.
Even though it is proven that it will be impossible to make available sewerage facilities in all the rural areas in the nearest future (Abdel-Shafy and Aly, 2007; MED WWR WG, 2007), there should be a feasibility study to determine what percentage can be achieved yearly so that a good and long tern plan can be designed and implemented. “The journey of a thousand miles they say starts with a single step”
The government should implement a more decentralized system of waste management making it easier for the rural communities to have their fair share of the program.
There should also be laws in place to govern industrial activities in relation to wastewater treatment and disposer. Every company should have standard equipment to treat their wastewaters before releasing and anyone who is not in compliance should be fined.
3.1 Conclusion
The main goal of any waste managing plan is to reduce environmental pollution and improve the productivity both from agriculture and the citizens. The present condition in Egypt, prove the country has not put together mechanisms to effectively prevent environmental pollution caused by wastewaters neither has the country has proper institutions to manage wastewaters both from household and industrial activities.
Abdel-Kader, A.M., Abdel-Rassoul, S.M. (2010): Prospects of Water Conservation In Egypt (Special Reference To Wastewater Reuse). In: Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Water Technology Conference, 25-27 March 2010, Cairo, Egypt.
Abdel-Lateef, E.M., Hall, J.E., Farrag, M.A.A., Farrag, A.A. (2011): AgroEconomic Studies on Wastewater Reuse in Developing Marginal Areas in West Delta, Egypt. International Journal of Water Resources and Arid Environments 1(2), 110-115
Abdel-Shafy, H.I., Aly, R.O. (2007): Wastewater Management in Egypt. In: Mohammed K. Zaidi (Ed): Wastewater Reuse-Risk Assessment, Decision-Making and Environmental Security, Springer Verlag, Netherland, pp.375-382
Abdel-Shafy, H.I., El-Saharty, A.A., Regelsberger, M., Platzer, C. (2010): Rainwater issue in Egypt: quantity, climatic effect and future overlook. J. Mediterranean Marine Science 11 (2), 245-257.
Abdel-Shafy, Hussein & Mohamed-Mansour, Mona. (2013). Overview on water reuse in Egypt: Present and Future. J. Sustainable Sanitation Practice. Vol. 14. 17-25. Retrieved from; M. (2013). Advances in wastewater treatment technology for water reuse. Journal of Engineering Research. 1. 1-27.
Bello, L. A, Omoboye, A. J, Abiola, T. O. (2019): Treatment Technologies for Wastewater from Cosmetic Industry – A Review: International Journal of Chemical and Biomolecular Science Vol. 4, No. 4, 2018, pp. 69-80 ISSN: 2381-7372 (Print); ISSN: 2381-7380 (Online)
A., Aliyu, H.K. and Dalil, M. (2013), “The challenges of domestic wastewater management in Nigeria: A case study of Minna, central Nigeria”, International Journal of Development and Sustainability, Vol. 2 No. 2, pp. 1169-1182.
Mahmood, S. and Maqbool, A. (2006), “Impacts of Wastewater Irrigation on Water Quality and on the Health of Local Community in Faisalabad, Pakistan”, Pakistan Journal of Water Resources, 10: pp. 230-270.
MED WWR WG (2007): Mediterranean Wastewater Reuse Report. Report, Mediterranean Wastewater Reuse Working Group (MED WWR WG), report.doc (last accessed 9 January 2013).
Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation Planning Sector (2017). National Water Resource Plan for Egypt-2017. Retrieved from;
Omosa, I.B., Wang, H., Chewng, S. and Li, F. (2012). Sustainable Tertiary Wastewater Treatment Is Required For Water Resources Pollution Control in Africa, Environmental Science and Technology, 46 (10), 7065-7066.
Sunday, A. (2013); Sewage Technology in Nigeria: A Pragmatic Approach. Federal University, Oye -Ekiti, EkiThe SWIM Program (2013); Review And Analysis of Status of Implementation of Wastewater Strategies and/or Action Plans national Report- Egypt

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